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THE REFERENCE LIBRARY 



MARINE CORPS HISTORICAL CENTER 







9fif 



LTCOL JOHN H. ADMIRE, USMC 



HISTORY AND MUSEUMS DIVISION 

HEADQUARTERS. U. S. MARINE CORPS 

WASHINGTON 



MARINE COSTS UNIVERSITY LIBRAS 



ABSTRACT 

THE EVENING PARADE 
A HISTORY OF THE MARINE CORPS' MOST FAMOUS CEREMONY 

John H. Admire 

Old Dominion University 

Director: Dr. Willard C. Frank 

The Evening Parade performed at Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., 

is the Marine Corps' most famous ceremony. This thesis presents information 

regarding the traditions and ancient customs associated with military 

ceremonies as well as the beginning of the Marine Corps and the past role of 

barracks duty. Additionally, this study summarizes the missions, planning, 

training, and support functions associated with the Evening Parade. 



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THE EVENING PARADE 



A HISTORY OF THE MARINE CORPS' MOST FAMOUS CEREMONY 



by 

JOHN H. ADMIRE 

B.A. May 196*, University of Oklahoma 

M.A. August 1965, University of Oklahoma 



A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of 

Old Dominion University in Partial Fulfillment of the 

Requirements for the Degree of 



MASTER OF ARTS 
HISTORY 



OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY 
August, 1982 



Approved by: 

Director: Dr. Willard C. Frank 



ALFRED M. GRAv MARINE C08PS 
RESEARCH CENTSR ^„_. 
ATTN COLLECTOR MANAGBUBCT 

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2040 BROADWAY ST 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PREFACE . iii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

CHAPTER 

I. THE EVENING PARADE 4 

II. THE EVOLUTION OF PARADES 13 

III. THE BARRACKS* EARLY HISTORY AND PARADES .... 26 

IV. THE SUNSET PARADES OF 1934 42 

V. THE EVENING PARADES SINCE 1957 59 

VI. BARRACKS CEREMONIAL REQUESTS AND TRAINING . . 109 

CONCLUSION 129 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 134 



li 



PREFACE 

The writing of this history has been a labor of love. It has given me 
the opportunity to talk with legendary leaders of the Marine Corps as well as 
with contemporaries for whom I have the highest respect. The search for 
information has been challenging. I have learned much about the parade, yet 
admit that there are still facts which I may never know. Possibly because I 
wanted to know every minute detail, I was disappointed when such information 
was unavailable. In any event, I confess that this history is incomplete, yet I 
am pleased this is so. I hope that in the future there will be many more Evening 
Parades and that this history is only the beginning. 

I had the privilege of serving the Barracks and Evening Parades in the 
late 1970s. In writing the history of the parade of those years I have 
unhesitatingly relied on direct recollection, impressions, and conclusions, since, 
like Virgil, "These things I saw, and a part of them I was." I admit, however, 
that any history of the Evening Parade would have been virtually impossible 
without the recollections of two former Commandants of the Marine Corps — 
General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., and General Leonard F. Chapman, Jr. Their 
reminiscences of the Barracks and parades at the Post were invaluable. The 
many other Marines to whom I am indebted are quoted or mentioned throughout 
the text. 

I particularly thank Dr. Willard C. Frank and Dr. Carl Boyd, history 
professors at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, for challenging me 
and inspiring me to seek understanding from military history. Their 
professional dedication has undoubtedly influenced many students over the 
years. 



Ill 



IV 

My special thanks are extended to Dr. Nancy G. Wilds, Armed Forces 
Staff College, Norfolk, Virginia. Dr. Wilds and Dr. Frank have patiently edited 
and proofed my manuscript and have given me sound advice and constructive 
criticism. 

Finally, I trust that my story has been an objective one. Although my 
respect and love for the Marine Corps and the Evening Parade may be obvious, I 
hope that it has been communicated in such a way that the reader senses the 
pride and emotion that characterize the Evening Parade. 



John H. ADMIRE 
Lieutenant Colonel, 
U.S. Marine Corps 



INTRODUCTION 

The Evening Parade performed at Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., 
will celebrate its twenty-fifth anniversary during the 1982 parade season. This 
history of the ceremony is an attempt to convey what the Evening Parade is and 
how it came to be that way. In promoting the ideals of pride and professional- 
ism in the Marine Corps, the Evening Parade has contributed significantly to 
the establishment and maintenance of the many traditions that over the years 
have come to represent the essential character of the Corps. The parade has 
come to symbolize all those qualities of dedication and service inherent in the 
profession of arms. Therein is the purpose of the parade- -to encourage pride 
and professionalism within the Marine Corps, and to promote respect and 
confidence within the nation toward its military services. 

This is the history of the Evening Parade as an institution, for the 
passage of time has granted the ceremony a unique place in the annals of the 
Marine Corps. If the grand pageantry of the parade embodies the past spirit of 
our nation, so too does it reveal the patriotism of the future. The ceremony 
may be distinctly Marine, yet it is an integral part of the nation it represents. 

The Evening Parade is a unique ceremony within the Marine Corps. 
This special parade is actually a synthesis of many types of traditional and 
contemporary ceremonies. The Evening Parade has extracted the finest and 
most revered features of such ceremonies as tattoo, retreat, evening colors, 
arrivals, inspections, and reviews, and has embraced them into one grand 
pageant. Thus the Evening Parade may parallel no one ceremony, yet it is in 
harmony with all the cherished traditions of our nation's military heritage. The 
parade is an entity unto itself and refutes comparison simply because in its 

1 



exclusive and unrivaled way there is nothing to which it can be compared. 

The Evening Parade as currently performed began in 1957, when 
Colonel Leonard F. Chapman, Jr., was the Commanding Officer of Marine 
Barracks, Washington, D.C. Later, as the Twenty-Fourth Commandant of the 
United States Marine Corps from 1968 to 1971, General Chapman was again 
closely associated with the Evening Parade. Genuinely respected as one of the 
truly great leaders in the history of the Marine Corps, General Chapman is a 
welcome and frequent guest at the Barracks. In 1977, the twentieth anniver- 
sary year of the parade, General Chapman observed the ceremony and after- 
wards remarked, "I noticed the Barracks reversed the appearance sequence of 
the Drum and Bugle Corps and the Silent Drill Team." He then added with an 
approving smile, "I liked it." 

The General's remarks, with all their simplicity and guarded praise, 
were respected approvals of the parade format that has evolved over the years. 
Undoubtedly, General Chapman was one of the few guests who recognized the 
relatively minor sequential change in the parade. In the twenty -five-year 
history of the Evening Parade there has evolved a certain mystique and sanctity 
about it that has defied major format alterations. Although minor modifica- 
tions have periodically improved the ceremony, the Evening Parade has 
remained essentially true to the first evening performance on 5 July 1957. For 
a Corps steeped in tradition and reverence for the past, changes are often 
viewed with varying degrees of skepticism. The Evening Parade has remained 
unchanged, however, simply because its initial excellence has withstood the test 
of time. 

Colonel Wesley H. Rice, the Commanding Officer of the Barracks in 
1977, observed that there had never been an attempt to write a comprehensive 



account of the Marine Corps' most famous ceremony, the Evening Parade. 
Thus, with that idea implanted and at Colonel Rice's urging, this history is an 
attempt to capture the spirit of the parade in narrative form and to record it as 
it was and as it now is. The focus of this history is therefore directed toward 
the intangible emotions of pride and patriotism that the parade invariably 
evokes. Although a survey of the more tangible aspects of the ceremony based 
upon empirical data would be a complementary study, the research in this thesis 
concentrates more on the spirit and professionalism that have come to charac- 
terize the parade. Consequently, this history views the Evening Parade more as 
an emotional experience than as a quantifiable object. 

The evolution and traditions of the Evening Parade date back through 
the annals of the Marine Corps. In placing today's Evening Parade in proper 
perspective, however, it is helpful to understand the history of the traditions 
and ancient customs associated with military ceremonies as well as the 
beginning of the Marine Corps and the past role of barracks duty. Additionally, 
to assist in more fully appreciating the dedicated professionalism that the 
parade exemplifies, the thesis will present material related to the missions, 
planning, training, and support functions associated with the Evening Parade. 

In conveying what the Evening Parade is, the subsequent narration is a 
word picture of the ceremony as it is currently performed. In describing how it 
came to be that way, later sections will discuss the evolution and history of the 
ceremony. 



CHAPTER I 
THE EVENING PARADE 

In the souvenir program presented to guests of the Barracks at the 

Marine Corps' most famous ceremony, the philosophy of the Evening Parade is 

succinctly stated: 

The Evening Parade calls neither to hawk nor dove. Holds no 
brief for the right nor the left. Makes no overtures to partisanship, 
power or privilege. The Evening Parade is offered solely to express 
the dignity and pride that is the 200 year heritage of all Americans. 
We trust this Evening Parade will be a memorable one for you.l 

As the final rays of light fade, signaling nightfall at the Post, a silence 
of anticipation invariably falls over the historic and hallowed grounds of Marine 
Barracks, Washington, D.C. The ceremony is about to begin. 

The announcer introduces the Marine Band with the statement: 
"Ladies and Gentlemen, welcome to Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. To 

begin tonight's ceremony, Marine Barracks is proud to present 'The President's 

2 

Own'- -the United States Marine Band." The world-renowned Marine Band then 

presents a pre-parade concert that signifies the beginning of the evening's 
festivities. The Band, with its brilliant scarlet and white uniforms, presents a 
musical repertoire recognized for its selection versatility. Whether the scores 
are from the latest Broadway shows, masterpieces from such famous composers 
as Bach, military marches from bygone eras, or songs from the "pop charts," the 



"The Evening Parade," Marine Barracks Parade Program, 18 May 
1979. 

2 
Introductory Announcement for Marine Band Concert, "The Evening 

Parade," 21 August 1981. 



Band's performance consistently adds to its illustrious reputation. The concert 
frequently concludes with the stirring "Stars and Stripes Forever," probably the 
most famous composition of the Marine Band's legendary leader, John Philip 
Sousa. 

As the Marine Band departs the parade deck into the shadows of the 
east arcade, to the applause of an appreciative audience, the behind-the-scenes 
chair removal detail prepares to remove quickly and efficiently the Band's 
chairs, microphones, speakers, music stands, and stationary instruments. De- 
spite the variety and awkwardness of certain pieces of equipment, each item is 
ceremonially removed from the parade deck. The final article, the Band 
Director's platform, is hoisted by two Marines in perfect unison and formally 
marched from the field into the arcade. This mundane task is completed with 
such apparently effortless proficiency that the crowd consistently demonstrates 
its approval by applause. 

Then, as the field lights dim, darkness prevails. Two spotlights on the 
north and south flanks of the parade deck instantaneously converge on the ship's 
bell anchored on the massive flagpole at Barracks center. The Time Orderly 
smartly approaches the bell and at precisely 2100, sounds two bells, executes an 
about face, and returns to the arcade. The Evening Parade has officially begun. 

All lights are extinguished. There is a temporary moment of complete 
darkness. Then the brilliant spotlights focus on a lone bugler who marches to 
mid-field, halts, and in clear, distinct tones sounds "Assembly." As he wheels 
for his return, resounding drum beats of the United States Marine Drum and 
Bugle Corps shatter the evening's silence. The rhythmic drum rolls signal the 
shining spotlights to focus on parade deck south, and from the southern flank 
the Drum and Bugle Corps regally marches onto the field and into the 



spotlights. The drummers and buglers, dressed in resplendent scarlet and white 
uniforms with instruments of sparkling silver, provide a colorful contrast to the 
carpet of lush green and the darkness outside the sphere of the lights. As the 
Drum and Bugle Corps takes its position and plays one selection, the Marine 
Band silently, under the cover of darkness, moves to its position at the north 
end of the parade deck. 

As the Drum and Bugle Corps' selection ends, the Company First 
Sergeants emerge from the arcade to positions port and starboard of the ship's 
bell. The Sergeant Major marches commandingly to mid-field, halts, and 
orders, "Report." The two musical and ceremonial units report, followed by 
the Sergeant Major's command, "Post," whereupon the First Sergeants execute 
an about-face and disappear into the arcade. These delicately timed and 
strongly executed maneuvers are only a prelude. 

The Sergeant Major then executes an about-face and orders the Bugler 
to "Sound Officers' Call." Eight immaculately dressed officers, swords glim- 
mering in their scabbards from the spotlights, majestically march in a close, 
two-column formation across mid-field, divide at the ship's bell, and fade into 
the arcade. 

The official mascot for the Barracks is then introduced as he emerges 
from the arcade and struts toward the audience via the mid-field line of march. 
The mascot, an English Bulldog, undoubtedly enjoys the singular attention and 
responds to the applause by sitting as his handler halts at mid-field. As the 
mascot departs the parade deck, the field again becomes totally dark. High 
atop the Barracks' ramparts, eight buglers suddenly appear, illumined by 
spotlights that cast their scarlet jackets against a background of darkened 
skies. The fanfare is sounded, the Drum and Bugle Corps marches north to its 



position to the rear of the Band, and the Parade Adjutant marches to his 
position at the north end of the parade deck. The Adjutant draws his sword and 
commands, "Sound Attention," followed by "Sound Adjutant's Call." The two 
companies alternatingly come to attention and right shoulder arms in the 
darkened arcade. Although they are unseen, the solid sounds of their move- 
ments echo across the parade deck and arouse anticipation in the audience. 

The Marine Band strikes up a quick march and, with all the glory and 
grandeur that can be mustered, the most brilliantly executed military parade in 
the nation unfolds. As the parade staff marches from concealed positions at 
the ship's bell directly to the reviewing area, the main body of six platoons of 
immaculately attired Marines surges onto the parade deck. In perfect sym- 
metry, one company marches from the north flank, another from the south. As 
the inboard platoons near the ship's bell, the two ceremonial units simulta- 
neously "Mark Time" and "Halt." On separate commands, the companies "Order 
Arms" and execute facing movements. The thunderous cadence of one hundred 
and fifty steel-plated rifles striking the deck in perfect unison hints of the 
discipline and training that exemplify the Marine professionalism. 

The Marines are now at attention, erect and unmoving. Trousers and 
hats of immaculate white are in sharp contrast to navy blue blouses, the 
severity of which is relieved only by white web belts, scarlet and gold rank 
insignia, shining buttons, and collar insignia. Every Marine, lean and hard, is 
close in height to the Marine beside him, approximately six feet tall. The 
ceremonial readiness of the Marines is undeniable. 

Sequentially, the company commanders order their platoon com- 
manders to align their units. The alignment is executed in strict harmony and 
phasing between the units. Simultaneously, the Parade Adjutant, at an 



accelerated cadence, strides toward mid-field to a position in front of the 

parade staff located in the reviewing area. The Adjutant then commands, 

"Battalion, Fix Bayonets." In the absence of subsequent oral commands, the 

Drum and Bugle Corps renders musical cues to which the Marines respond by 

removing silver bayonets from their scabbards and fixing them to the imposing 

M-l rifles. The faultless execution of one hundred and fifty bayonets, fixed in 

a single motion, reveals the arduous practice that produces such uniformity. 

The Marine Corps Color Guard is then marched to mid-field and takes 

its position in the spotlight. The announcer tells the audience: 

The Color Guard before you is unique. In addition to the 
National Flag carried by the Color Sergeant of the Marine Corps, it 
includes the official Battle Color of the United States Marines. The 
forty -seven streamers and silver bands displayed on the Battle Color 
commemorate the military campaigns in which Marines have 
participated. They span the entire history of our nation . . . from 
the American Revolution to the present time. Decorated with 
palms, oak leaf clusters, and stars, representing over four hundred 
awards and campaigns, they are visible symbols of the pride, 
professionalism, and esprit de corps of the United States Marines. It 
is the privilege of Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., the Oldest 
Post of the Corps, to be entrusted with the custody of the Color. 3 

The Color Guard then proceeds to its place of honor, forward of the ship's bell, 

centered within the formation of Marines protecting its flanks. 

With the Colors in position, the Adjutant commands, "Sound Off," and 

the parade's two musical units perform. First, the Marine Band struts south to 

a reverberating military march, countermarches, and halts on parade deck 

south. Then the Drum and Bugle Corps executes a precise British slow march 

south toward the halted Band. As the front ranks of the two units converge, the 

Band steps off into a quick march. The Drum and Bugle Corps countermarches 

in trace of the Band as both units proceed north, wheel, and halt. 



3 

Introductory Announcement for Marine Corps Battle Color, "The 

Evening Parade," 21 August 1981. 



The significance of the preceding occurrence is unknown to most 
guests. Although the Drum and Bugle Corps has received tributes from 
virtually all parts of the country, its finest tribute is an unspoken one: it is the 
only musical unit authorized to appear in playing formation with one of the 
world's outstanding military bands — the United States Marine Band. 

Because of its evening schedule, the Barracks is the only Marine Corps 
installation permitted to fly the American flag at night, well past the normal 
retreat time. It is now that the National Color is reverently lowered while the 
National Anthem is played. Three spotlights illumine the splendor of the reds, 
whites, and blues as the flag makes its slow, ceremonial descent. The timing is 
exact and corresponds with the music. As the final notes of the National 
Anthem echo across the parade deck and away into the night, the color - 
lowering detail grasps the flag, releases it from the halyards, and neatly folds 
it. 

The parade is now formed and the Adjutant so reports to the Parade 
Commander. The command then executes the manual of arms, and the 
Adjutant publishes the orders. The Adjutant then issues the command for 
"Officers, Center." The Company Officers flank inboard, march toward 
mid-field, halt, and then stride forward to present sword salutes to the Parade 
Commander. The salute is returned, and the Company Officers reverse the 
sequence and return to their positions. The polished sequence is a standard of 
military execution. 

The Marine Corps Silent Drill Team then executes a ten-minute drill 
sequence without oral commands. Every movement is counted out silently; 
every exercise is so well rehearsed that it could almost be performed 
blind-folded. The military formation dissolves into circles, squares, lines 



10 



through lines, and independent groups of twos, fours, and sixes. Regardless of 
the variety of formations, they are all executed in perfect harmony with each 
other. Finally, one long, unswerving line of twenty-four Marines is prepared for 
inspection. Spectators sense the impending ritual. The Drill Team Inspector 
positions himself to the right flank of the long line. Anticipation mounts as the 
inspector slides down the line, halts, and is presented a rifle for inspection. The 
ten-and-one-half-pound, fully operational weapon is whirled and twirled, and 
flung and swung with effortless ease. With baton-twirler precision, but without 
a feather-weight baton, the heavy, bulky, awkward rifle is inspected. Then 
with complete casualness, the inspector lifts the weapon above his shoulder, 
grips the wooden stock, and in one swift motion drives the weapon up, out, 
down, and flips it over his shoulder, from behind his back, in a perfect arc to 
the awaiting Marine. As the weapon is in mid-air, the inspector contemptu- 
ously flanks and struts off, seemingly unaware of the nonchalance with which 
the rifle is seized by the awaiting Marine. This feat, however, is only a prelude. 

The drill climax is even more demanding. The finale is the double 
inspection, commonly known as the "mirror drill," in which two Marines 
confront one another face to face. As the inspector proceeds along the line, a 
Marine flips a rifle to the inspector, who snatches the weapon in full stride with 
absolutely no variance to the exacting cadence. The inspector halts, facing 
another Marine, and a perfectly synchronized rifle ballet begins. The two 
Marines perform an intricate series of balanced and perfectly timed executions. 
It represents the ultimate in precision drill. Rifles are spun from every 
conceivable angle, at ever-increasing speeds. 

The "mirror drill" concludes with a double, unnerving exchange of 
rifles. Simultaneously, the two Marines lift their rifles to their shoulders with 



11 



the butt temporarily resting on the shoulder and the muzzle aimed to the sky. 
Tension mounts as the formidable exchange is about to be performed. The 
ten-plus pounds of solid wood and steel are plunged skyward, wrenched back 
earthward, and spun in full rotation around and over the back and shoulder. The 
two rifles glide past each other at the apex of the concentric arc and tumble 
into the awaiting grasp of the opposite Marine. Then with seeming indiffer- 
ence, the inspector flings the weapon to the Marine who originally tossed it 
from the formation, and the drill is concluded. 

Before the full impact of the impressive routine is reduced, staccato 
drumbeats of the Drum and Bugle Corps echo from the shadowy arcade. 
Attention is immediately riveted toward the ship's bell, as twin columns of red 
and white clad drummers and buglers file onto the parade deck to the strains of 
martial music. Affectionately known as "The Commandants' Own," the Drum 
and Bugle Corps presents a repertoire of colorful music. Selections range from 
original arrangements, to contemporary ballads, to the nation's traditional songs 
of freedom. The spectacular serenade is an affirmation of the excellence of 
the Drum and Bugle Corps, and their exit is invariably marked by enthusiastic 
applause- -and maybe a little sadness that the late hour precluded one more 
selection. 

As the lights dim and the drum beats fade, the Parade Staff marches 
to the honors spot at mid-field. Tribute is then paid to the Honored Guest and 
Reviewing Official. The Pass In Review sequence is then executed with 
elaborate military efficiency, as the Marines march across the parade deck to 
show respect to the distinguished guest. The razor-like alignment of the 
passing platoons and their stoic countenances, accompanied by the most famous 
of all military songs, "The Marines' Hymn," illustrates the pride that is the 



12 



heritage of the Marine Corps. 

The Colors are then ceremonially retired, the officers dismissed, and 
the Marines, once described by Time magazine as "Shakespearean wraiths, 
liveried figures who stalk the night-draped battlements" of the Barracks retreat 
ceremony, disappear again into the darkened arcade. Total darkness descends 
upon the parade deck, and the Marine Band is spotlighted as it renders a 
memorial tribute to Marines of yesteryear. The solemn rendition of "Taps," by 
a lone bugler bathed in a floodlight high atop the ramparts of the east Barracks 
proclaims the conclusion of the Evening Parade. 

The name Evening Parade, however, belies the true character of the 
formation. It is more than a parade. It represents the evolution and 
culmination of such ceremonies as tattoo, retreat, and lowering the colors. It 
combines the essential elements of many traditional ceremonies. It has become 
a grand pageant. It is an historic military ritual that perpetuates the traditions 
and discipline of the United States of America and its Marines. 



4 
"Washington: The Monks at Eighth and I," Time , 9 August 1971, 

p. 23. 



CHAPTER H 
THE EVOLUTION OF PARADES 

Ancient Parade Origins 

Today's military parade has evolved from numerous ancient military 
traditions. Numerous unit or individual acts in the Barracks' Evening Parade 
are derived from military experience through the ages. As a recent British 
historian has noted, to the "uninitiated these customs may be regarded as 
meaningless or ... as being useless anachronisms." Yet, to those who under- 
stand their origin, these traditions are the foundation of that mystical force in 
the Marine Corps often referred to as esprit de corps. 

Today, with the passage of time, many ceremonial practices are only 
symbols of functions that have long since become obsolete. Yet their survival 
in a ceremonial, if not a practical sense seems to impart a quiet reverence and 
respect for the customs of yesteryear, as well as a reaffirmation of the present 
and of the future. The Evening Parade at the Barracks contains many customs 
of ancient origin as well as contemporary innovations. The use of music in 
cadence marching, the sword salute, the officers center, and the sound off are 
examples of ancient acts preserved in today's Evening Parade. To understand 
the history of various phases and acts of the parade is to more fully appreciate 
the symbolic as well as the literal significance of today's military ceremonies. 
The military parade is one of history's oldest pageants. Many of the sequences 
of the Evening Parade at the Barracks are self-explanatory as to their 



Thomas Joseph Edwards, Military Customs (Aldershot, Hampshire, 
England: Gale and Polden Limited, 1954), p. xxix. 

13 



1* 



traditional origin; however, some customs have become obscure with the 
passage of time. To place the parade and its many historical events in proper 
perspective, a review of the more frequent and relevant aspects of the Evening 
Parade will be presented now. 

Military Music 

As historian Herb Richardson noted in an article on "Field Music" in 
Leatherneck magazine, "Making music and waging war would seem to be 
opposite extremes." Although music and war may appear to be contradictory, 
the two share many traditions. The drums of the famed Roman Legions, the 
mystical horns of the Vikings, the long horns of medieval times, and the bugles 
of the cavalry charges of the American West were all symbols of war. 

The drum is probably the oldest musical instrument used by the 
military. In biblical times and in the ancient Roman armies, the drum was used 
to beat cadence for warriors. Marshal de Saxe, a revered military leader and 
theorist, attributed the success of the Roman Legions to their fast foot 
marches and to their system of battlefield control of troops by cadence 
marching. In 1735 de Saxe wrote, "There is the whole secret, and it is the 
military step of the Romans. That is why these musical marches were 
instituted, and that is why one beats the drum." The Roman Legions 
eventually added the music of trumpets and cornets as well. 

The biblical armies of Gideon and Saul may have been the first to use 
bugles. It is the Romans, however, who first used them in battle. In time these 
various instruments, drums and horns, were used to sound the charge and 



Herb Richardson, "Field Music," Leatherneck , September 1981, 
p. 16. 

Mark M. Boatner, III, Military Customs and Traditions (New York: 
David McKay Company, 1956), p. 37. 



15 



retreat, to regulate the movement of unit colors, and to signify various guard 
mounts and work details. 

Although the ancient armies used bugles in battle, the instrument 
virtually disappeared from military organizations during the Dark Ages. His- 
torians are somewhat at a loss to explain the absence of the bugle from the 
battlefield during this time, but acknowledge that later the drum again became 
the predominant instrument for sounding signals on the battlefield. The Seven 
Years' War (1756-1763) in Europe witnessed the return of the bugle to the 
military. 

In time the primary function of the bugle was to sound calls for 
regulating the daily activities of soldiers. In American history, for example, 
perhaps the most characteristic sounds of any military post in the latter half of 
the nineteenth century were the bugle signals that signified the various events 
of the day. General George Custer's wife, Elizabeth, wrote that the sound of 
the bugle "was the hourly monitor .... It told us when to eat, to sleep, to 

march, and to go to church .... We needed time pieces only when absent 

g 
from garrison or camp." 

The ancient use of bugles for tactical purposes, however, has failed to 

disappear totally. As recently as the wars of the twentieth century, the use of 

bugles in combat reminds one that even today "primitive people still use them 

9 

tactically- -for control and for psychological effect." 



8 
Harold L. Peterson, "The Army in the West," Series of Record 

Albums titled "Military Music in American," vol. 3., Washington, D.C.: 

Company of Military Historians, n. d. 

9 

Boatner, Military Customs and Traditions , p. 39. 



16 



Cadence Marching 

Ancient armies moved in mass formations without any conscious 
attempt at establishing or maintaining a uniform marching formation or 
cadence. Later, as armies grew larger and as tactical formations replaced 
relatively disorganized masses, battles were won or lost by the speed and 
precision with which formations of men could be moved. Thus mobility and 
exactness in battlefield maneuvering became of paramount importance. His- 
torically, organization and discipline became instruments of success in combat, 
and the innovation of cadence marching contributed to unit integrity and 
cohesion as well as efficiency in the execution of group movements. Tactical 
formations such as the maniple of the Roman legion that destroyed the 
disorganized hordes of the Gauls, the precision of the phalanx's development 
into a precise terrifying force, the Hollow Square's volley fire at Waterloo that 
defeated Napoleon's great army, and contemporary examples of coordinated 
attacks of combined arms forces testify to the validity of synchronization of 
effort in the chaos of battle. 

Although the Romans conceived the idea of keeping step during road 
marches, it was the Turks and the Arabs who expanded on the concept during 
the Crusades. Then in the fourteenth century the Swiss instituted the practice 
of "marching in step to drum and fife." 

The Arabs formed musical units around their battle flag to mark its 
location in the chaos of battle. The music inspired the warriors because as long 
as the fighting units could hear the music above the sounds of battle they were 
confident that the fight was proceeding well. Conversely, the eerie music 
terrified their opponents. In recognition of the spirit and discipline that 



Ibid., p. 38. 



17 

marching to a regular rhythm could produce, cadence marching became 
integrated into virtually all military organizations by the Swiss. Such marching 
became an essential aspect of successful battlefield maneuver in the classical 
warfare of the seventeenth century. Later the armies of Frederick the Great in 
the eighteenth century incorporated intensive drill maneuvers into their 
tactical formations thereby improving their combat effectiveness. In America 
the revolutionary forces at Valley Forge were an inexperienced and 
ill-disciplined army until they mastered the drill sequences associated with the 
manual of arms and coordinated weapons firing. So too in the early 1800s did 
Napoleon devise new tactical formations with precise and integrated maneuvers 
that revolutionized battlefield drill. Throughout the nineteenth century basic 
tactical drills adapted to the transitions in warfare technology as disciplined 
and coordinated movements became integral aspects of battlefield success. 
Thus the intricacies of close order drill have a long history. 

Saluting 

Theories as to the origin of the salute with the hand or a weapon have 
evolved from numerous theories and legends. It is generally recognized that 
throughout history the raising of the right hand signified a greeting of 
friendship. It also demonstrated that no form of weapon was available and 
therefore was a sign of trust. Historians acknowledge that there was a 
connection between this simple gesture and the eventual and more formalized 
hand salute. 

Yet numerous legendary origins have been invented over the years. 
One, according to a British historian, is that in "medieval times the victors at 
tournaments shaded their eyes with their hand on approaching the Queen . . . 
otherwise they would have been blinded by her dazzling loveliness." Another 



Edwards, Military Customs , p. 204. 



18 



example of its beginning was that in the days of knights the knight would raise 

12 
his "visor to reveal his identity as a courtesy on the approach of a superior." 

These various acts—raising the open hand and lifting the visor — were somewhat 
related in that they demonstrated an act of trust and respect. Yet probably the 
most plausible origin of the hand salute is the explanation of Major Mark M. 
Boatner, IV, United States Army. He acknowledged that it was a long-estab- 
lished military custom for juniors to remove their headgear in the presence of 

superiors. But as headgear became more awkward to remove "the act of 

13 
removing the hat degenerated into a gesture of grasping the visor." This 

theory is substantiated by the British Coldstream Guards Regimental Order of 

1745, which read: "The men are ordered not to pull off their hats when they 

14 
pass an officer . . . but only to clap up their hands to their hats." 

Throughout the years the hand salute has come to represent a greeting of 

respect between men in uniform. The gesture is one of ancient origin, yet is 

practiced extensively in today's military. 

The rendering of salutes with weapons also has a controversial history. 

Historians concede, however, that the idea of holding a weapon in a harmless 

position appears to have been a universal and ancient manner of demonstrating 

respect. For instance, the manual of arms movement "Present, Arms" with the 

rifle, in which the weapon is held vertically in front of the body with trigger 

and sling forward, is a symbolic gesture of submitting the weapon to the 

superior being honored. A Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., parade program 

of 1968 explained that the origin of the rifle salute "has been traced to the 

return of Charles II to England in 1660 to claim his throne. The 



12 

Boatner, Military Customs and Traditions , p. 45. 

13 

Ibid., p. 47. 

14 

Edwards, Military Customs , p. 205. 



19 



King . . . ordered that the ceremony be prescribed ... as a mark of 
respect." 

Authorities also differ as to the derivation of the sword salute. In his 
book on naval customs, Lieutenant Commander Leland P. Lovette, United 
States Navy, wrote that the sword salute is probably of crusader origin. He 
claimed that "the crucifix, symbolical of the cross, was in the days of chivalry 
symbolized on the sword by the handle and the guard." Thus the first 
movement of the sword salute, raising the sword hilt up opposite the chin, with 
the point of the sword in the air, was believed to be a relic of the days when the 
crusader kissed the cross (hilt) before entering battle. The second motion, 
lowering the sword tip to the ground, symbolized the trust of putting down one's 
guard, 

The Adjutant and Sergeant Major 

The term "parade" in its original sense signified a prepared ground and 
was often applied to a court yard or any enclosed and level plain. It became a 
practice to review military organizations at such a location, and the review 
itself eventually acquired the name "parade." 

In the early parades there were two positions of particular importance. 
One was that of the Sergeant Major, a rank which dates back to the thirteenth 
century, when the title signified the chief tenant of a knight's military retinue. 
The responsibilities of the position were those of superintendence over the 
organization's drill, discipline, and administration. The second key position was 
that of the Adjutant, traditionally associated with publishing the orders of the 



"The Evening Parade," Marine Barracks Parade Program, 31 May 
1968. 

Leland P. Lovette, Naval Customs; Traditions and Usage 
(Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1939), p. 25. 

Boatner, Military Customs and Traditions , p. ^8. 



20 



commanding officer. The duties of the Adjutant were primarily associated with 
mustering and inspecting troops and forming parades and lines of battle. To the 

present time a unit's Sergeant Major and Adjutant perform these traditional 

18 
duties in conjunction with ceremonial training and military parades. 

Sound Off 

The "Sound Off" sequence in parades can be traced to the time of the 
Crusades. According to Major James A. Moss, United States Army, "Soldiers 
selected to go on Crusades would form on the right of the line of troops. The 
position on the right traditionally has been recognized as the position of honor." 
In ancient battles the "right of the line" was the critical side of the fight, and in 
ceremonies today it is considered the place of honor. The troops occupying this 

position were "honored by having the band march and countermarch in front of 

19 
their small, select group only." 

On the Adjutant's command, "Sound Off," the band would play three 
chords, march and countermarch, and repeat the three chords. The chords 
remain symbolic as "Three Cheers" for the honored troops. 

"Officers, Center" 

The command, "Officers, Center," has its roots in the dawn of military 
history. In the initial stages of warfare it was recognized that a battle was best 
fought under the direction of one individual leader- -a warrior whose skill in 
combat qualified him to direct the battle. Prior to entering the battle, it 
became practical for this leader to assemble those who served under him to 
outline and present his plan of battle. The Romans formalized this practice 



18 
"The Evening Parade," Marine Barracks Parade Program, 31 May 

1968. 

19 

Boatner, Military Customs and Traditions , p. 42. 



21 



into an exhortation of troops, a combined "pep talk" and battle plan given by 
the Commanding General or Imperator to the entire army. As armies became 
larger in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it became impractical for 
the leader to address the army collectively. Thus, only the subordinate leaders, 
those directing the actions of combat forces, would attend the conference. In 
the eighteenth century, when the rise of professional armies permitted a degree 
of training prohibited by the volunteer or mercenary armies of earlier cen- 
turies, the summoning of officers for a conference became a formal maneuver. 

The ancient armies were relatively small and the battlefield was 
confined to the range and power of various weapons. But as technology 
transformed the manner in which wars were fought and armies increased in size 
and enlarged the battlefield, detailed plans became fundamental to success in 
war. In a symbolic recognition of the tradition of addressing troops before 
battle, in today's military ceremonies the commander issues, via the adjutant, a 
formal command to his subordinates in place of a speech or plan of battle. This 
command is "Officers, Center," during which the subordinate unit leaders 
uniformly assemble and present themselves to the commander of the formation. 

"Taps" 

The music that American armed forces use for "Taps" has an 
interesting history. The United States Army originally used the French "Lights 
Out" for Taps. Although it was reputed to have been the favorite call of 
Napoleon, General Daniel Butterfield, of the Army of the Potomac, failed to 
agree. General Butterfield had no particular knowledge of music, but with the 
assistance of his brigade bugler he created a new version of "Taps" in 1862. The 
call was eventually adopted by other corps and made official throughout the 
army. The American "Taps" was later also adopted by the French in 1932. 



22 



Initially, "Taps" had the single significance of officially concluding the 
day's activities. According to army historian Colonel James A. Moss, however, 
"Taps" was later also used in military funerals. Colonel Moss notes during the 
American Civil War's Peninsular Campaign in 1862, a soldier was to be buried in 
close proximity to the battle front and that "it was unsafe to fire the customary 
three volleys over the grave." As a consequence, the commanding officer 
decided that "the sounding of Taps would be the most appropriate ceremony 

that could be substituted." The custom was eventually adopted throughout the 

20 
armed forces of this country. 

Today "Taps" in the United States military is sounded at all military 

funerals and as a signal to mark the end of the day. The following words have 

been written for Taps: 

Fades the light, 
And afar 
Goeth day 
Cometh night; 
And a star 
Leadeth all 
Speedeth all 
To their rest. 

Tattoo, Retreat, and Evening Colors 

The sequence of events for the Evening Parade at Marine Barracks, 
Washington, D.C., is standard for Marine units and ceremonies throughout the 
world. Yet the ceremony at the Barracks includes modifications to display the 
special capabilities of the ceremonial units of the command and to feature the 
unique physical characteristics of the architecture and parade ground at the 
Barracks. The actual parade, however, is an elaboration of the military 
ceremony Sunset Colors. With the passage of time, Sunset Colors evolved from 
and was an expansion of such ceremonies as tattoo, retreat, and lowering the 



20 

zu Ibid., p. 41. 



23 



colors. 

Tattoo is slang for "tap toe," a Dutch word for turning off the tap on a 
wine barrel: " Doe den tap toe ." Today's practice of drumming or playing tattoo 
as a spectacular conclusion to the military day had its origin in a simple 
military routine that dates back to the seventeenth century, when British troops 
were stationed in Holland. At the time the local inns were the social centers 
for the soldiers. In the evenings following the soldiers' work day, they could 
congregate in the local taverns to escape the rather stark life of the garrison 
and partake of spirits while enjoying the camaraderie of their fellow soldiers. 
As long as the inns and their taps were open, it was difficult to encourage the 
soldiers to return to their barracks. An enterprising commander, however, 
concluded that once the sale of spirits was halted, the soldiers would return to 
their barracks at night. Innkeepers were signaled to turn off their taps and 
terminate the sale of drinks. This signal was a drummer marching through the 
streets at night beating his drum. 

As this relatively simple ceremony became more sophisticated, the 
drummer was joined by a fife player, presumably because the drummer required 
assistance in being heard above the noise of roistering soldiers. The fife player 
invented a special melody for the occasion. Evidently, as the music became 
louder so did the boisterousness of the soldiers, for in time the regiment's entire 
corps of fife and drums was used to signal the tavern owners to turn off the 
wine taps and to escort the soldiers back to their post. Eventually a complete 

regimental band was formed to provide music for formal occasions and for 

21 
special military drills and ceremonies. 

The retreat ceremony was also a product of British military tradition 



21 

Lovette, Naval Customs: Traditions and Usage , p. 57. 



Ik 



and American colonialism during the time when towns and cities were fortified. 
A concise description of the historical retreat ceremony is to be found in a Fort 
Henry Guard narrative which accompanies their traditional performance at 
Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The narration explains that in the pioneer days the 
people lived in garrisons but grazed their cattle and farmed their land outside 
the walls of the fort or their small towns. At sunset each day a call was 
sounded on a bugle, horn, trumpet, or similar musical instrument. The object of 

the retreat call was to warn those outside the fort or town to return to the 

22 
safety of the garrison. 

At the same time the retreat signal served as a command for the 
mustering and posting of the necessary guards for the night watches. After 
sunset, the garrison was mustered and the day guard was relieved by the night 
guard. The muskets of the night guard were fired and then reloaded to ensure 
that the powder was fresh and that weapons were ready for use during the 
night. In time the retreat call became a more elaborate ceremony that both 
warned the townspeople to return to the safety of their homes and warned those 
who might be unfriendly that the guard was prepared to defend the fort. 

In 1893, when the " 'Star Spangled Banner 1 became the National 
Anthem in the United States, the tattoo ceremony was eliminated except for 
the blowing of the call by a bugler. In place of the tattoo call, the lowering of 

colors at sunset, Evening Colors, became the most elaborate ceremony of the 

23 
day." Thus, as an evolution of the tattoo, retreat, and lowering the colors 

ceremonies, the present-day military rituals have become symbolic of the 



22 

Interview with Dan Cox, Sergeant Major, Canadian Forces (Ret.), 

Kingston, Ontario, Canada, 26 August 1979. 

23 

Joel E. Thacker, letter to David Zeitlin, k October 1950, Marine 

Corps History and Museums Division, Washington, D.C. 



25 



traditional evening colors pageantry. From the ancient beat of a single drum, 
to the professional precision of contemporary military ceremonies, the 
evolution of the traditional parade has witnessed significant modification. Yet 
many of the simple customs of ancient origin may be observed in the 
sophisticated ceremonies of today. 



CHAPTER HI 
THE BARRACKS' EARLY HISTORY AND PARADES 

The Oldest Post of the Corps" 

Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., established in 1801, is officially 
recognized as the "Oldest Post of the Corps." The history of the Barracks, 
especially in its earlier years, parallels the story of the growth of the United 
States Marine Corps. One important aspect of that history includes the 
development of the ceremonial proficiency and training of the Barracks' 
Marines. Although the Barracks in the nation's capital has performed military 
reviews and ceremonies dating back to its earliest beginnings, it has only been 
in the twentieth century that military ceremonies have become the primary and 
most prestigious mission of the Barracks. 

Throughout the 1800s the close order drill and parades performed at 
the Barracks were an integral aspect of the training of new recruits and 
officers. With the eventual establishment of recruit depots and other training 
bases, the ceremonial training at the Barracks began to focus almost exclu- 
sively on special parade commitments. Thus, with the relocation in 1911 of 
other training missions, the Barracks Marines became the center of the Corps' 
elite marching troops. In the capital area in the nineteenth century Marines 
staged parades for special occasions and as directed by the President of the 
United States or ranking government officials. Then in 193^ parades at the 
Barracks were performed on a relatively regular schedule, and the ceremonies 
became an integral aspect of duty at the garrison. Over two decades later, on 5 
July 1957, the concept and format of the Evening Parade, as presently 

26 



27 



performed, was first conducted. 

The Barracks' Beginning 

On 10 November 1775, in the city of Philadelphia, the Continental 
Congress drafted a resolution which created the Continental Marines: 

"Resolved, That two Battalions of Marines be raised ... as to be able to 

24 
serve to advantage by sea." Thus Philadelphia became the birthplace of the 

Corps, and it was from there that American Marines were dispatched for their 

engagements during the American Revolution. 

The American victory at Yorktown, Virginia, on 19 October 1781 and 

the subsequent Peace of Paris in 1783 concluded the War for American 

Independence. The Continental Marines were unofficially disbanded, as was the 

Army and Navy, and there was no formally organized Marine Corps. In response 

to pressure to protect American sea commerce, however, Congress in 1794 

"passed a Naval Act which provided for six frigates . . . and for officers, 

25 
seaman, and Marines to man them." ' Recognizing the need for a central 

headquarters from which the Marine Corps could be organized and trained, on 

11 July 1798 Congress forwarded to President John Adams "an Act for 

26 
Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps." Soon thereafter William Ward 

Burrows was appointed as Major Commandant of the Marine Corps. He was 

instrumental in re-establishing the Marine Corps; however, one of the most 

lasting decisions of the new Commandant was to move the Marine Corps 

Headquarters from Philadelphia to the new capital in Washington, D.C. 



24 

Robert Debs Heinl, Jr., Soldiers of the Sea (Annapolis: United 

States Naval Institute, 1962), pp. 4-5. 
25 Ibid., p. 10. 
Ibid. 



28 



Upon arriving in the nation's capital in the summer of 1800, the 
Marines bivouacked at a site in Georgetown. Later that fall the Marines moved 
to another temporary campsite located on a commanding hill about eight blocks 
west of the White House. In seeking a more permanent home for the Marine 
Corps, Commandant Burrows and his friend, the newly elected President, 
Thomas Jefferson, personally selected the site for the new Marine Barracks. It 
was during a horseback ride along the unpaved streets of Washington, D.C., in 
March 1801 that the President and the Commandant agreed upon the Marines' 
new home. The two men selected "square number 927," located between 8th 
and 9th Streets and G and I Streets, Southeast. 

A search of property records revealed that the property was an initial 
land grant by Charles I of England in 1632. It cost the government $6,247.18. 
In confirming the site for the Barracks there were two principal considerations: 
first, the Barracks would have to be within easy marching distance of the 
United States Capitol Building; and, second, the Marines should be situated near 
the Naval Gun Factory, known as the Washington Navy Yard. These two 
contingency security missions also implied protection duty for the White House 
and the president and remain primary tasks of the Barracks to the present time. 

President Jefferson attended the dedication ceremonies at the Bar- 
racks and during his address to the Marines is reported to have said, "This 

27 
barracks is not a gift to the Corps of Marines. You men have earned it." But 

if the Marines had earned it, they also had to build it. The Congress had 

appropriated $20,000 for the construction of the Barracks. The Secretary of 



27 

Quoted in Robert A. Suhosky, "Eighth and Eye," Leatherneck , 

November 1955, p. 17. 



29 



the Navy acknowledged that such funds would be insufficient, but in a note to 
the Commandant wrote, "I presume with the aid of Mechanics & others of your 

Marines, that Barracks may be erected for twenty thousand dollars, which 

28 
without such aid, would cost 50000." Commandant Burrows accepted the 

Secretary of the Navy's suggestions, and Marines were in fact tasked to aid in 

the construction of the Barracks. The Commandant's Home occupied the north 

end of the quadrangle, and the Marine Band's rehearsal hall and offices were 

located at the south end. The Barracks' administrative offices, headquarters 

office spaces, and storerooms occupied the east side, while on the west side the 

famous Center House and troop billeting were situated. These structures 

completely enclosed the parade deck, which was located in the center of the 

quadrangle. The old Center House was famous as a spot where presidents and 

dignitaries visited, and as the place of confinement for Aaron Burr while he was 

awaiting trial for treason. In the early years of the twentieth century the 

Barracks underwent a major reconstruction program; however, except for 

modernization and the construction of senior officer quarters on the west side 

of the quadrangle, the Barracks has remained essentially unchanged over the 

years. 

In appreciation for President Thomas Jefferson's assistance in 

selecting the site for Marine Barracks, on 4 3uly 1801 the Barracks' Marines 

performed a special parade for the President on the White House lawn. This 

military ceremony by the Marines marked the first time in the history of the 

nation that a detachment of regular troops was reviewed by the Commander- 



28 

Quoted in Karl Schuon, Home of the Commandants (Quantico, 

Virginia: Leatherneck Association, Inc., 1974), p. 54. 



30 



29 

in-Chief at his residence in the city of Washington. 

Sixty years later, Commandant John Harris, proud of the ceremonial 
proficiency of the Barracks' Marines, requested that the Secretary of the Navy 
arrange an appointment for a drill and parade for the President. In a letter to 
the Secretary, Commandant Harris wrote that his Marines were "desirous of a 
salute to the President." With the nation soon to be divided by the outbreak 
of the Civil War, however, the Barracks' salute to the President failed to 
materialize, and it was a hundred years before a President visited the Barracks 
for an official ceremony. 

Presidential inaugurations and special occasions prompted the parades 
and ceremonies conducted by the barracks during the early 1800s. General John 
A. Lejeune, the Thirteenth Commandant of the Marine Corps, recalled in his 
memoirs, Reminiscences of a Marine , that from the date of the establishment 
of Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., until after the conclusion of the War of 
1812, "Marines were the only military force stationed in the District of 

Columbia and constituted, to some extent, the household troops of the 

31 
President." Meanwhile, at the barracks the traditional military reveille and 

morning muster parades were held with varying frequency. These musters 

eventually evolved into more regulated guard mount ceremonies, and later into 

more formalized military parades. 

Thus close order drill became an integral part of the barracks. Upon 



29 

"The United States Marine Band," Information Brochure, (Washing- 
ton, D.C.: NAVMC 5914, MCNPB 40596, 4 July 1954), no page. 

Quoted in Schuon, Home of the Commandants , p. 108. 

John A. Lejeune, The Reminiscences of a Marine (Philadelphia: 
Dorrance and Company, 1930), p. 171. 



31 



being appointed as the Third Commandant of the Marine Corps, Lieutenant 
Colonel Franklin Wharton directed one of his first orders at drill. On 28 April 
1805 Commandant Wharton signed an order that included the following: "The 
Adjutant should every day after the hour of parade, attend to the drilling of 
every man not actually on duty and superintend generally their arms and 
appearances." The Officer of the Day was thereafter placed in charge of the 
drills. Commandant Wharton directed the officer to particularly attend "to the 
wheeling backward and forward of the men, teaching them to count their steps 

and halt when they are ordered, so as to have no moving after the word 'Halt* 

32 
was given." 

Colonel Wharton later established one of the first formal ceremonial 

and drill training programs for the barracks Marines when he issued the 

following order on 6 September 1808: 

Headquarters of the Marine Corps at Washington considered as 
the school where young officers and recruits are to be instructed 
in the various duties which they may be called upon to perform, it 
is expected that in future the Commanding or Senior officer in 
Barracks will order such Parades as he may think necessary to 
insure the same, exclusive of those already ordered; and that he 
will require the attendance of such officers on them as he may 
think proper. 33 

Thus it can be determined from official orders that Marines at the 
Eighth and Eye Barracks have been parading for almost two hundred years. The 
sequence may vary, as has the hour, but as the Washington National Intelli- 
gencer wrote on k July 1817, the Marines were on parade: "There was no 
military parade except of the Marine Corps, which paraded and commenced its 
march through the city at a little after four o'clock in the morning." The 



32 

"Drill and Ceremonies," Operations Office Archives, Marine 

Barracks, Washington, D.C., n. d., unpaged. 

33 

Heinl, Soldiers , p. 27. 



32 



article explained that this unlikely early hour was because of the extreme heat 
of later hours and concluded by stating, "many toasts were drunk under the 

discharge of cannon and interluded with songs accompanied by the Marine 

34 
Band .... The Marines manned the artillery on this occasion." 

The First Ceremonial Units 

The United States Marine Band, formed by an Act of Congress in 1798, 
was the first military musical organization in America. As the nation's first 
military band, the Marine Band and its performances in the city of Washington 
pre-date the Barracks and the ceremonial activities of the garrison. The 
history of the Marine Band parallels the history of the United States. The Band 
has performed at White House social functions since its debut there on New 
Year's Day, 1801, when President 3ohn Adams gave his first official reception. 
Since President Thomas Jefferson's time the band has played at every 
inauguration held in the nation's capital. Traditionally known as "The 
President's Own," the Marine Band has developed a close association with the 
White House over the years. 

The Band performs at White House State Dinners and official visits, at 
children's parties and weddings, at reunions and funerals. At virtually every 
social event hosted at the White House the Marine Band has been present. 
Additionally, on special occasions the Marine band has escorted honored 
dignitaries from outside the Washington area. The Band accompanied Lafayette 
during his triumphant return to Yorktown in 1825, and was with President 
Lincoln in Gettysburg during his immortal address in 1863. The list is endless 
because the Band has performed for almost every notable occasion and for 
every official foreign visitor to the United States. 



34 

"Drill and Ceremonies," unpaged. 



33 



Throughout the early years the Marine Band's popularity rose to 
celebrity proportions. Although the music of the band had become world 
renowned, the band became somewhat of a national band when John Philip 
Sousa became its leader in 1880. Sousa had joined the Marine Band as a 
thirteen-year-old musician and received most of his music education from 
fellow band members. Under the leadership of Sousa, the Marine Band 
continued an impressive and demanding schedule of open air concerts at the 
White House and Capitol, plus national tours. The band became the best known 
musical organization in America and Sousa became known as the "March King." 

In the years to follow, the Marine Band continued to perpetuate the 
reputation for excellence that it established in the early days and that was 
enhanced in the golden years of Sousa. Although the band has grown from a 
drum and fife unit of yesteryear to a sophisticated organization of today, the 
band has always been recognized as a military band. Its evolution has 
corresponded to and contributed to the martial spirit of the Marine Corps. 
Now, as then, the band has been an integral part of the ceremonial proficiency 
of the marching units at the Barracks. 

The Marine Band, with its New Year's Day, 1801 performance for 
President Adams, thus became the first ceremonial unit at the Barracks. When 
later that summer the garrison's marching units staged the 4 July parade for 
President Jefferson on the White House grounds they became the second parade 
unit at the post. The ceremonial marching unit at the Barracks was initially 
known as the Barracks Detachment. The organization varied in size in the early 
years, as it was formed primarily to perform the normal guard functions 
associated with barracks duty. As ceremonial commitments became more 
prominent, however, ceremonial tasks became the primary mission of the unit 



34 



in subsequent decades. 

Coinciding with this transition in the Barracks' image to that of the 
premier ceremonial Marines in the Corps, the Barracks formed what eventually 
became the third ceremonial unit at the post. The Marine Corps Institute was 
established in 1920, and the Marines assigned to the unit were charged with the 
operation of the new correspondence schools program of the Marine Corps. 
With the eventual initiation of the Sunset Parades in 1934, however, the 
Institute Marines began performing ceremonial duties as a secondary mission. 
In addition, as their marching proficiency increased, the Institute Marines 
augmented the Barracks Detachment in performing ceremonies outside the 
garrison. As a unit, however, the Institute's ceremonial activities were initially 
restricted primarily to the local weekly parades and special events at the 
Barracks. 

The Early Parade Deck 

Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., is one of the smallest Marine 
garrisons in the United States. The two-city-block quadrangle that the 
Barracks occupies in the southeast section of the city is about two and one-half 
acres in size. There are many distinctive features to the Barracks: the 
imposing old-fashioned ramparts high atop the arcade, the majestic Home of 
the Commandants, the stately quarters of the Corps' senior general officers, 
and the band hall made famous by John Philip Sousa. But the focal point of 
these impressive surroundings is the parade deck. Located in the center of the 

quadrangle, the parade deck is somewhat larger than a football field and 

35 

measures 380 feet and 7 inches by 132 feet and 9 inches. ' As the ceremonial 



Ceremonies Manual (Washington, D.C.: Marine Barracks Order 
P5060.39D, 1 May 1979), sec. 2, p. 35. 



35 



missions of the Barracks became more pronounced over the years there has 
evolved a certain sanctity about the Barracks' parade deck. But it has not 
always been that way. 

The parade deck at Eighth and Eye probably suffered its worst 
indignity during the War of 1812. As the British forces prepared for their 
attack on the city of Washington, Marines from the Barracks were assigned to 
the various militia defending the city. Unfortunately, this left the Marine 
garrison virtually defenseless. The British units relentlessly advanced and 
eventually occupied the nation's capital. During the British army's temporary 
occupation of the city, the leader of the invading force, Major General Robert 

Ross, and his Redcoat Army selected the Marine Barracks as their head- 

36 
quarters. The Post, with its heavy brick buildings and ten-foot stone wall, 

was a veritable fortress. 

The British had marched into the capital virtually unopposed. The 
government had fled the city and the British established their temporary 
authority. In defiance, the British proceeded to burn as many public buildings 
as they could identify. Torches were applied to the White House, the Capitol, 
the Treasury, the War Office, the Arsenal, and many others. The city of 
Washington was ablaze. The Marine Barracks and the Commandant's Home, 
however, were spared. 

In subsequent years many theories were developed to explain why the 
Barracks was one of the few governmental buildings to be spared by the British. 
One theory of considerable merit was that because of the valiant stand taken by 
the Marines at the Battle of Bladensburg, General Ross' respect for their 
courage and heroism caused him to refuse to burn the garrison. Another theory 



36 

Schuon, Home of the Commandants , p. 70. 



36 



was that in their hasty withdrawal from the city the British neglected to set 
fire to the post. A final, equally plausible explanation was that the local 
residents and shopkeepers pleaded with the British to leave the Barracks intact 

because any fire at the garrison would endanger their adjoining private 

37 
property. 

But if the British failed to raze the Barracks, they showed no similar 
respect for the Barracks' parade deck. Prior to the British attack and 
occupation of the city and the Barracks, two Marines had been detailed to guard 
the Marine Corps' paymaster funds. The money, about $25,000, had been 
appropriated by Congress to sustain the Corps through 1814. As the battle for 
the city became desperate, the two Marines buried the money and joined the 
militia defending the city. The two Marines were later killed in the battle; 
however, British intelligence learned of the burial of the funds somewhere in 
the compound. History fails to record the discovery of the cache, either by the 
British or later during various reconstruction projects at the Barracks. It is 
known, however, that the British desperately sought to locate the treasure by 
digging up virtually every inch of the Barracks grounds. 

From that time when the British defiled the parade deck until the 
present, Marines have felt a certain sanctity toward the parade deck that 
borders on religious zeal. But the development of such a reverence required 
decades. In the days of yesteryear the parade deck was also an important 
training site for machinegun drill, cannon maneuvering, and athletics. At one 
time a swimming pool was located on the grounds, but during the reconstruction 
program between 1901 and 1907 it disappeared. At about the same period, 
presumably to remind the Marines of their sea-going heritage, the hull of an old 



37 Ibid., p. 71. 



37 



38 
wooden ship graced the parade deck. That too has long since disappeared. 

Barracks Duty and the Corps 

The formation and growth of Marine barracks and of barracks duty are 
unique Marine Corps institutions. While parades were an important aspect of 
early Marine Barracks missions, duty at a barracks in the Corps constituted 
much more than performing ceremonies. Marine barracks epitomized the 
essence of the Marine Corps in its early days and their growth paralleled the 
growth of the nation. As the country expanded westward, the United States 
Army established military forts to provide protection for American pioneers. 
Similarly, as the nation recognized the inherent value and necessity of naval 
and maritime forces, barracks were founded to provide security for naval bases 
and naval installations. Thus barracks began to appear at numerous seaports in 
the continental United States as well as on foreign shores and overseas 
possessions of the United States. In many respects, the early history of the 
Corps and its exploits paralleled that of the creation of new barracks. The 
career of almost every Marine in the early years was directly related to his 
duty at one of the Corps' many barracks. 

Although Continental Marines provided security for naval installations 
and were stationed aboard naval ships during the War of independence, there is 
no evidence that a Marine barracks was established during the American 
Revolution. But as the naval establishment grew, so too did the need for 
security at various naval bases and shipyards. Following the founding of the 
barracks in the nation's capital, other barracks were soon opened along the 
eastern seaboard of the United States. In fact, throughout the nineteenth 
century, according to Lieutenant Colonel William R. Smith, United States 



38 

Edward Barnum, "Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C.," Leather- 



neck , April 1954, p. 16. 



38 



Marine Corps, "the stabilized strength of the Corps tripled, and that expansion 

39 
can be traced directly to the growth of naval stations." In the 1800s the 

various barracks served as composite commands, but none to the degree of the 
barracks in the District of Columbia. The Marine Corps had no separate 
headquarters, recruit depots, training bases, or support facilities — all such 
facilities were located at Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. 

Furthermore, in times of war or national emergency, Marine expedi- 
tionary forces were formed from drafts taken from the different barracks. As 
late as 1911, 3ohn A. Lejeune, the Thirteenth Commandant of the Marine 
Corps, recalled in his memoirs, Reminiscences of a Marine , that the expeditions 

to assist the Mexican government in 1911 were "made up in the usual way by 

40 
assembling detachments from all eastern posts at the embarkation point." 

Those "eastern posts" were the various Marine Barracks. While serving as the 

Commanding Officer at the Barracks, General Lejeune wrote that "my duty at 

the barracks was varied by service on expeditionary duty from May to August, 

41 
1906." In relating a requirement to form an expeditionary force and report to 

the point of embarkation within twenty-four hours, General Lejeune said that 

the Marines were drawn from practically every station on the east coast. The 

former Commandant noted that this system of organizing expeditionary forces 

had its defects, "but there was then no way of avoiding the practice as there 

was then no Marine Corps post equipped to house permanent expeditionary 

forces." 



39 

William R. Smith, "Marine Barracks: Essence of the 'Old Corps', " 

Marine Corps Gazette , November 1980, p. 91. 

40 

Lejeune, Reminiscences , p. 193. 

41 

Ibid., p. 172. 

Ibid. 



39 



In the various expeditions to Guantanamo Bay, Haiti, Nicaragua, Vera 
Cruz, Samar, and elsewhere, barracks throughout the east coast jointly provided 
the campaign force. Literally generations of Marines served at a barracks in 
the "Old Corps" as barracks duty became a way of life for Marines. A focal 
point of the Marine Corps, the barracks was a home between campaigns and a 
point of departure for those Marines assigned to expeditionary forces. 

In 1890 an event occurred that was to influence the future of the 
United States as well as of the Marine Corps and its barracks. That event was 
the publication of a book by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, United States Navy, 
entitled The Influence of Seapower upon History, 1660-1783 . The theories 
espoused by Mahan had a profound influence upon world history. They were a 
significant force in impressing upon those nations which aspired to international 
power status that such status was virtually dependent upon great naval forces. 
Mahan argued that America's achievement of her destiny required a commit- 
ment to building a superior naval strike force, a strong merchant marine, and 

43 
advanced naval bases for global support. ' The concept of establishing 

overseas advanced naval bases had a significant influence on the Marine Corps, 

for it led to the requirement for a larger, more sophisticated Marine Corps. It 

was Mahan's theory that eventually led to the Marine Corps' establishment of 

the Advance Base Force, then the Expeditionary Forces, and finally the Fleet 

44 
Marine Forces. 

As the primary mission of the Marine Corps was modified in response 

to Mahan's theories, so too were the duties of Marine barracks, especially in the 



43 

Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Seapower upon History, 

1660-1783 , (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1943), pp. 25-89. 



44 



Smith, "Marine Barracks," p. 92. 



40 



post-World War I era. The principal mission of the Marine Corps became that 
of a modern force in readiness designed to project sea power ashore and to 
secure advanced naval bases. Although Marine barracks continued to exist, 
their security missions at naval installations became a secondary mission of the 
Marine Corps. Thus barracks duty continued to be an integral part of the 
Marine Corps; however, the recruit depots, bases, and supporting commands 
became the key installations of the transitioning Marine Corps. Consequently, 

today's barracks, according to Lieutenant Colonel Smith, are "organizational 

45 
microcosms of a Corps that once was." 

Yet probably no Marine barracks epitomizes the standards of the 

Marine Corps of yesteryear and of today as does the barracks in the nation's 

capital. Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., served as Headquarters Marine 

Corps until 1901 and as the center for recruit training until 1911. For many 

years Marine Barracks Eighth and Eye was the Marine Corps. It served as the 

home of the Corps for over a century. General Lejeune's comment that the 

formation of Marine expeditionary forces from various barracks was not the 

best situation was true. Nonetheless, Marines from Eighth and Eye were 

formed into fighting units during the War of 1812; they followed Commandant 

Archibald Henderson in 1835 to fight the Seminole Indians in Florida; and they 

became part of a Marine regiment assigned to support Lieutenant General 

Winfield Scott in the Mexican War in 1846. Later, when the abolitionist John 

Brown captured the Federal Arsenal at Harper's Ferry, the Secretary of the 

Navy ordered all available Marines from the Washington Barracks to assist 

Colonel Robert E. Lee in retaking the arsenal. During the War Between the 



^ 5 Ibid., p. 95. 



<n 



States, Marines from the barracks marched off to battles at many different 
fronts. Quelling numerous incidents throughout Latin America, barracks 
Marines became an integral part of the respective expeditionary forces, 
including those units dispatched to fight in the Spanish-American War. In 
essence, the Eighth and Eye Barracks was the focal point of the Corps in peace 
as well as war. 

With the relocation of Headquarters Marine Corps in 1901, the 
barracks' attention focused on training recruits and officers, plus performing 
ceremonial duties as directed. When the recruit training function was trans- 
ferred to the new recruit depot in Parris Island, South Carolina, in 1911, 
ceremonial commitments became an increasing task at the barracks. The 
barracks was then in a position to devote its full attention to various 
ceremonial duties throughout the nation's capital. Although 1911 may have 
marked a transition in the ceremonial missions of the barracks, drill and 
parades had long been a task of Marines at the garrison. 

Thus parades and ceremonies by Marines in the nation's capital 
continued over the next two decades with varying emphasis and influence. 
Although wars and military commitments often precluded an official or 
formalized schedule for ceremonies, in 193^ a program was initiated that 
eventually led to the present-day Evening Parade and the ceremonial promi- 
nence of the Washington Barracks. 



CHAPTER IV 
THE SUNSET PARADES OF 193* 

The Barracks initiated its first full season of regularly scheduled 
weekly parades in 193*, when Major General John H. Russell, Jr., was the 
Sixteenth Commandant of the Marine Corps. The parades were conducted in 
the late afternoon, usually on Mondays or Thursdays, with times varying from 
1600 to 1730. The ceremonies had two basic purposes: first, to improve the 
marching proficiency of the units and, second, to provide for the entertainment 
of the guests. The parades were commonly referred to as "Sunset Parades," 
because the parades were structured around the lowering of the Colors at 
sunset. The ceremonies were conducted from April to November each year and 
usually concluded in the week of the Marine Corps birthday, 10 November. The 
format for the Sunset Parade remained basically unchanged until 19*7. It was 
in that year that performances by the United States Marine Drum and Bugle 
Corps and Silent Drill Team were added to the ceremony. 

The Sunset Parades were performed from 193* through 1956. Then in 
mid- 1957 they became an even more formalized ceremony. Initially the 
parades were primarily performed for the training and entertainment of the 
Barracks Marines and their families and friends. Because of times at which the 
parades were scheduled and the fact that the late afternoon rush hour traffic 
precluded the attendance of the general public, the parades usually averaged 
between two and three hundred spectators. 

The basic format for the Sunset Parade was envisioned and directed by 



Interview with Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., General, USMC (Ret.), 
Kingston, Ontario, Canada, 25 August 1979. 



LO 



« 



Colonel Emile P. Moses and Major Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., the Eighth and Eye 
Commanding Officer and Executive Officer, respectively, in 1934. Colonel 
Moses and Major Shepherd, who later became the Twentieth Commandant of 
the Marine Corps, observed the symmetry of the parade deck — bordered on its 
long axis by graceful maple trees and shrubs fronting the senior officer's 
quarters and the Barracks administrative offices, to the north by the 
picturesque Home of the Commandant, and to the south by the Marine Band's 
band hall made famous by the immortal John Philip Sousa. They conceived a 
balanced pageant that would perfectly match the splendor of its old-fashioned 
setting. 

Major Shepherd envisioned the shadowy arcade of the barracks as a 
backdrop and "as wings to a stage — a runway from which Marines would march 
to their places on the parade deck." The "shadowy arcade" is an imposing 
network of arched brick columns. The original purpose of the brick columns 
that formed the passageway arcades of the east and south interior of the 
Barracks quadrangle was to facilitate the defense of the garrison in the event 
of a forced entry by an invading force. Using the arcades as concealed 
positions, the Marine defenders could assemble between the columns and form 
an organized resistance. Major Shepherd's modern version, however, was to 
have the ceremonial marching units assemble in the arcades, "the wings to a 
stage," and with precise timing, simultaneously converge on the parade deck 
from the north and south ends of the east "runway." 

Although the parades that began in 1934 became the basis for the 
eventual Evening Parade, there were experiments and innovations that 
succeeded as well as failed. The ceremony retained its traditional character, 



^ 7 Ibid. 



44 



yet adapted to change. 

The sequence of the early Sunset Parades in 1934 was executed in 
accordance with established regulations. The parade manuals of the day, 
however, authorized modifications in ceremonies to adapt to any unique 
characteristics of the parade ground or the special abilities of the participating 
units. Consequently, the Eighth and Eye parades were executed in consonance 
with the orders of the day, yet the spirit of the regulations provided for 
innovations over the years. 

The standard march on sequence for units in a parade is normally from 
left to right. The novel architecture of the Barracks and the symmetry of the 
parade deck, however, caused Major Shepherd in 1934 to have the two 
companies march from both flanks simultaneously and converge on the center 
of the parade ground. The inherent timing and uniform appearance of this 
maneuver enhanced the appearance of the grand opening of the parade. 
Although the Sunset Parades staged from 1934 to 1943 retained a basic 
sequence format, later modifications were incorporated into the parade. 

The Sunset Parades were discontinued during the years 1944, 1945, and 
1946 because of the Second World War and wartime supply priorities. Upon the 
resumption of the parades in 1947, however, two conspicuous modifications 
were introduced into the parade that have continued to the present day. The 
two additions to the parade sequence were appearances by the Marine Drum and 
Bugle Corps and the Silent Drill Team. 

The Drum and Bugle Corps was initially formed in 1934 to augment the 
United States Marine Band and to perform independently at parades and other 
ceremonies. It was not until 1947, however, that the Drum and Bugle Corps was 
incorporated into the Sunset Parades. It was also in that year that the idea of 



45 

forming a Silent Drill Team was developed and incorporated into the parades on 
an experimental basis. Initially the Barracks Detachment consisted of three 
platoons, and each platoon originated a drill routine. Although each platoon's 
drill was basically the same, the units competed each week for the honor of 
performing during the actual parade. As the proficiency and popularity of the 
platoon increased, however, the training requirements and commitment 
schedule became more pronounced. Thus in 1959 the Silent Drill Team was 
designated as a separate platoon, and thereafter only one unit has performed 
the intricate drill routine. What initially began as an experiment proved so 
successful that it has become a featured attraction of the Barracks' 
ceremonies. 

The sequence of events of the early Sunset Parades, which was 
representative of over two decades of ceremonies at Eighth and Eye, was 
reflected in a 4 May 1956 parade program. The format was as follows: 

Troop March On 

March on the Colors 

Sound Off — Marine Drum and Bugle Corps 

Color Lowering 

Manual of Arms 

Orders of the Day 

Officers Center 

Pass In Review 

Silent Drill Team 

Drum and Bugle Corps 

Retirement of the Colors 

Troop March Off 



48 

"The Sunset Parade," Marine Barracks Parade Program, 4 May 

1956. 



46 



With the addition in 1947 of the Drum and Bugle Corps and the Silent Drill 
Team, this format characterized the Sunset Parades from that year to 1957. 

Parade Innovations in the Early 1950s 

General Shepherd was instrumental in establishing the Sunset Parades 
in 1934. Furthermore, upon his return to the Barracks in the early 1950s, 
General Shepherd continued to display an avid interest in the ceremonies and to 
encourage many innovations in the parades. Thus the years immediately 
preceding the first Evening Parade in 1957 were times of experimentation and 
change that contributed to the ceremonial mission of the Barracks. 

In 1953, when General Shepherd was the Commandant, he prescribed 
loose rifle butt plates and steel cleats for the marching platoons. These 
innovations enhanced the audible executions of selected manual of arms 
movements and marching maneuvers. Colonel Berkeley, the Barracks Com- 
manding Officer, acknowledged, however, "that these innovations annoyed the 
hell out of the Inspector General and the crash of the rifles usually gave the 
Quartermaster General heartburn." Consequently, Colonel Berkeley claimed 
that the premier marching unit in the Marine Corps "never received high marks 

from the Inspector General because we used Shepherd regulations and not 

49 
Marine Corps regulations." 

Another innovation of General Shepherd's, the merit of which has been 

debated but to this date never changed, is the "slide and glide" step. This 

technique is to step off in marching with a smooth, sliding motion as opposed to 

an abrupt raising of the foot followed by a forceful plant of the heel on the 

deck. Although this technique is disputed to this day, it remains somewhat of 



49 

James P. Berkeley, letter to 3ohn H. Admire, 4 April 1978, 

Operations Office Archives, Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. 



47 



an institution for Barracks ceremonial units. 

Other ceremonial innovations, however, were less successful. A flag 
pole was installed at the south end of the parade deck in early 1954 from which 
the personal flag of dignitaries could be displayed during Barracks ceremonies. 
The top of the flag pole was well below the roof line of the Barracks, and this 
prevented any breeze from ever stirring the personal flag. To correct this, 
Colonel 3ames P. Berkeley, the Commanding Officer, decide to install an 
electric fan hidden out of sight in a nearby tree. 

Lieutenant General William O. Brice was the reviewing official during 
the debut of the personal flag pole and the electric fan. After the General's 
personal flag had been unfurled, Colonel Berkeley noticed the General 
continually turning to observe the flag flying in the breeze. Colonel Berkeley, 
thinking the General was pleased with the innovation, was proud of his idea 
until General Brice commented, "Colonel, something is strange with the 
weather. The National Color is waving in one direction and my flag in the 
opposite direction." Colonel Berkeley then explained the fan and the General 
asked, "How Hollywood are we going to get?" Colonel Berkeley had the fan 
removed the following day. 

Over two decades later, however, an electric fan reappeared at the 
Barracks during ceremonies. In honor of the nation's Bicentennial in 1976, two 
flags were flown atop the ramparts during the final 'Taps" sequence of the 
Evening Parade. Thus the National Color and the Bicentennial Flag were 
appropriately displayed, and the fan assisted in stirring the flags so that guests 
could more easily recognize the symbolic effect of the two flags. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



48 



Although a limited number of Negroes had served in the Continental 
Marine Corps during the American Revolution, the conclusion of the War for 
Independence terminated black enlistments in the Corps. In the years to follow 
blacks were barred from service in the Marine Corps. In May 1942, however, 
the Marines again accepted blacks as a source of manpower during the Second 
World War. Initially, however, blacks were restricted to service in special 
segregated units or to steward duty. 

On 28 July 1948 President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 
9981 abolishing racial segregation in the armed forces. Thus the Marine Corps 
began to fully integrate Negroes into all Marine units. By the early 1950s 

blacks were being assigned to combat units, recruiting duty, sea details, 

52 
embassies, and various Marine barracks. 

The Marine Corps' approach to the Negro through the years was 
representative of that of society at large. The policy of exclusion, of 
segregation, and finally of official acceptance spanned centuries. Yet within a 
decade of their entrance into the Corps the black Marine began to be integrated 
and accepted into all facets of duty in the Corps. But such integration in the 
Marine Corps initially proceeded with caution. The first appearance of a black 
Marine in a Marine Barracks parade was no exception. 

In the summer of 1953 Colonel Berkeley's adjutant notified the 
commanding officer that a black Marine, who worked in the Post Exchange, had 
expressed an interest in marching in the Sunset Parades and wearing a set of 
dress blues. Colonel Berkeley decided that he had best explain the situation to 
the Commandant, General Shepherd, prior to making a decision. The 



52 

"The Negro in the Marine Corps," Headquarters, U.S. Marine 

Corps, Equal Opportunities Branch, Fact Sheet, 1971, p. 13. 



49 



Commandant agreed with Colonel Berkeley's recommendation that the Barracks 
issue the Marine a set of blues and allow him to participate in the parade. The 
Commandant suggested, however, that, because of his inexperience, the Marine 
be positioned in the rear rank of one of the marching platoons. 

The black Marine was exceedingly proud of his new uniform and 
appeared in the weekly Friday afternoon parade in the rear rank. Colonel 

Berkeley explained that General Shepherd "did not like the drill as set forth in 

53 
regulations." Thus Colonel Berkeley had invented a trick maneuver to comply 

with General Shepherd's desire to have lines rather than columns pass in review. 

The Sunset Parade proceeded as scheduled, and the pass in review, 

followed by the "trick maneuver," was accomplished as usual. Then the 

platoons returned to their original positions on troop line. At this point, as 

Colonel Berkeley recalled, "the drill team and other Hollywood acts took 

place." As the drill team performed, General Shepherd turned to Colonel 

Berkeley and said, "Colonel, I thought I told you to put the black Marine in the 

rear rank." Colonel Berkeley explained that he had, but that the "trick 

maneuver" used to accomplish the General's requirement for pass in review 

resulted in the ranks being reversed when they returned to troop line. Colonel 

Berkeley recalled that the General simply shrugged and that was the last 

54 
mention of the subject. 

In recognition of the outstanding contributions that black Marines had 

made to the Marine Corps, Colonel Chapman directed in 1957 that fifteen black 

Marines be selected and assigned to ceremonial duties at the Barracks. Since 

that time black Marines have served in virtually every position in the Evening 



Berkeley letter. 
5 ^Ibid. 



50 



Parade. 

In further recognition of the contributions of black Marines to the 
Marine Corps, James E. Johnson, Vice Chairman of the Civil Service 
Commission and a retired black Marine warrant officer, was the guest of honor 
and reviewing official at an Evening Parade in 1969. Johnson had entered a 
segregated Marine Corps in 1944 as a private with a record book stamped 
"Colored" and an enlistment contract marked "Steward Duty Only." He was 
later commissioned a warrant officer and was instrumental in changing the 
image of steward duty in the Marine Corps and in encouraging racial integration 
in all facets of Marine life. After his retirement from the Marines, Johnson 
succeeded in many positions of public service and eventually served as the 
Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Manpower and Reserve Affairs. 

Another innovation of the 1950s was the participation of Women 
Marines in ceremonies at the Washington Barracks. Women Marines had first 
joined the Marine Corps in August 1918 in response to the personnel require- 
ments of World War I. Although their duties were primarily clerical, the women 
actively participated in drill and ceremonies in the nation's capital. A Marine 
drill instructor conducted close order drill sessions at 0700 on the Ellipse behind 
the White House. The Women Marines practiced drill daily and later marched in 
numerous parades in the District of Columbia prior to and after the signing of 
the armistice. Upon the return of the Second Division from France in 1919 the 
Women Marines formed a marching unit in a parade reviewed by President 



Interview with Leonard F. Chapman, Jr., General, USMC (Ret.), 
Washington, D.C., 14 May 1978. 

Henry I. Shaw, Jr., and Ralph W. Donnelly, Blacks in the Marine 
Corps (Washington, D.C.: History and Museums Division; Headquarters, U.S. 
Marine Corps, 1975), pp. 65-66. 



51 



Woodrow Wilson. 

In the years following the war, Women Marines were transferred to 
inactive status and by 1922 were disenrolled from the Marine Corps Reserve. 
Twenty -one years later, however, women were once again recruited for service 
during a national emergency. Although reluctantly at first, the Marine Corps 
formed the Marine Corps Women's Reserve in February 1943. The Women 
Marines of World War II became involved in a wider range of duties than those 
of the First World War. Women Marines established a band at Camp Lejeune, 
North Carolina, and at Quantico, Virginia they formed a trick order drill team 
in April 1944. Both organizations established an excellent reputation; 

however, it was to be another decade before the first Woman Marine appeared 
in a parade in the Eighth and Eye Barracks. 

Captain Mary Whitmore, a Woman Marine assigned to the Marine 
Corps Institute Company at the Barracks, was the first woman to march in the 
Sunset Parade at the Barracks. Colonel Berkeley assigned Captain Whitmore to 
one of the Barracks' parade staffs, and she marched in her first Sunset Parade 
in 1954. When General Shepherd inquired as to why a woman was marching, 

Colonel Berkeley replied that "she is a part of the command and she has to take 

59 
her turn at all things." The General agreed and Captain Whitmore was the 

first, and to date only, woman to march on the parade staff. 

The adoption of a Barracks mascot was one of the final innovations of 

the Sunset Parades. The English Bulldog has become representative of the 



Linda L. Hewitt, Women Marines in World War I (Washington, D.C.: 
History and Museums Division; Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1974), p. 33. 

58 

Pat Meid, Marine Corps Women's Reserve in World War II 

(Washington, D.C.: History and Museums Division; Headquarters, U.S. Marine 

Corps, 1964), pp. 10-22. 

59 

Berkeley letter. 



52 



Marine Corps and is recognized as the Corps' unofficial mascot. The bulldog 

symbol probably dates from World War I, when German soldiers are alleged to 

have referred to American Marines as "Devil Dogs," comparing the Marines to 

the fierce, wild mountain dogs of Bavarian folklore. The name was adopted by 

American war correspondents, and newspaper accounts of the Marines' heroic 

courage at the Battle of Belleau Wood frequently depicted the Marines as Devil 

Dogs. A Marine recruiting poster of the time protrayed a dachshund attired in 

a spiked helmut and Iron Cross fleeing, tail between his legs, from an English 

Bulldog wearing a Marine helmet with the Globe and Anchor insignia. 

In the subsequent war with Germany in the 1940s, the image of the 

Marines as Devil Dogs reappeared. In an article published in the Washington 

Times-Herald , dated 26 February 1943, the following notice appeared: 

Wanted — one English bulldog and he must be fierce looking — Two 
hundred Marines want a mascot that will look as tough as they really 
are and the English bulldog has it ... . These fighting men prefer 
that the dog be young enough so that they can teach him tricks. For 
example, he'll march with a band and will be turned out in a neat 
little uniform all his own.60 

World War II restricted the ceremonial commitments of the Barracks, 

and the post-war era was equally demanding. Consequently, it was not until 

1956 that the Barracks acquired its first mascot. Private First Class Chauncy, 

a fawn-colored English Bulldog, attended his first parade at the Barracks on 3 

August 1956. At that time, however, Chauncy was only a spectator at the 

parades, and only after extensive ceremonial training was the mascot permitted 

to perform in the parades. Thus it was in subsequent years that the Barracks 

mascot became an integral part of the Evening Parade. 



1981, p. 31. 



Quoted in Julia Fitzgerald, "The Mascots," Leatherneck , October 



53 



Visiting Ceremonial Units 

Initially the Barracks parade deck was used exclusively by the cere- 
monial detachments from the Eighth and Eye command. As the reputation of 
the Barracks became enhanced by the proficiency of its ceremonial units, 
however, the parade deck received visiting performances by premier units 
throughout the world. General Shepherd, who had been instrumental in many of 
the ceremonial initiatives at the Barracks, encouraged the invitation of 
selected units to participate in joint and combined parades at the "Oldest Post 
of the Corps." 

The Fort Henry Guard, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, invited the Wash- 
ington Barracks to participate in combined ceremonies in Canada in 1954. The 
Marines reciprocated the following year, and in 1955 the Fort Henry Guard 
became one of the few ceremonial units to parade on the Barracks parade 
ground. The combined ceremonies and the relationship that evolved were so 
successful that the parades became a traditional annual event. Thus the 
parades now take place in Canada one year and in Washington the next. 

The Fort Henry Guard's initial visit to the Barracks in 1955 was 
followed the next year by a visit from a United States Army National Guard 
unit. Although the Sunset Parades had begun in 1934, it was not until 12 
October 1956 that the Marine Corps saluted an Army National Guard unit at the 
Barracks during a Sunset Parade. This salute across the services — Marine Corps 
to Army — and across components- -regular to National Guard — was prompted 
by mutual pride of military units and tradition. The Seventh Regiment of New 
York was observing its 105th Anniversary that year and its illustrious history 
was one of honor and valor. Thus the Marines saluted the distinguished unit 
with a joint ceremony at the Barracks. 



55 



formalized, and the Barracks provided a continuous detachment at Camp David. 
Initially the platoons were rotated from the Barracks to Camp David for periods 
ranging from three to six weeks; however, in time the security mission and 
detachment became permanent. Thus in 1957 the Barracks formed a special 
company, Security Company, which provides full-time security at Camp David, 
and such duties have had no adverse impact on the ceremonial activities of the 
Barracks in recent years. 

Parade Deck Interest 

As the Sunset Parades continued to become the focal point of Barracks 
activities the Barracks ceremonial duties began to take precedence over 
virtually all other events at the post. Parades became the primary function of 
the Barracks Marines. This caused a renewed interest in the appearance of the 
parade deck that had repercussions for other activities of the Barracks. Since 
that time when the British had shown disrespect for the parade deck in the War 
of 1812 the Marines had acknowledged the special features of the parade 
ground. Nonetheless, this respect failed to prevent extensive use of the area 
for numerous activities. 

In later days, as baseball and softball became popular American 
pastimes, a softball field appeared on the southern end of the parade deck. The 
Commandant's backyard fence became the leftfield wall, the Barracks flagpole 
marked centerfield, and the east arcade became a relatively short boundary for 
the lefthanded hitters. The game obviously enjoyed much popularity at the 

Barracks because a photograph in the November 1955 issue of Leatherneck 

62 
reveals the outline of the softball diamond. ' Other photographs in the Marine 



1955, p. 16. 



62 

Robert A. Suhosky, "Eighth and Eye," Leatherneck , November 



56 



archives picture an actual game in progress and reveal the distinctive dirt spots 
on the parade deck. Lieutenant Colonel 3ack T. Kline joined the Marine Corps 
as a musician in 1947. Later, as the Director of the Marine Band, Lieutenant 
Colonel Kline remarked, "I have memories as a sergeant in the late 1940s of 

marching through the dust of the Softball diamond at the south end of the 

63 
parade deck." As the Sunset Parades transitioned into the more formal 

Evening Parade, however, Colonel Chapman decreed that "there would be no 

more athletics on the parade deck." The parade deck became sacred. 

Yet this reverence for the parade deck, discounting limited athletic 

events, had actually begun years earlier at the Barracks. As the commanding 

officer in 1953, Colonel James P. Berkeley issued the order that the parade 

ground would be maintained "in perfect order." ' Consequently, during the 

winter and spring months, when the parade ground was soft and wet and the 

parade deck was susceptible to damage, parades and rehearsals were held in a 

local armory to prevent any destruction to the grounds. The succeeding 

commanding officer, Colonel Robert H. Williams, explained in 1955 that the 

parade deck was "sacred and used only for practice parades- -and the real 

thing." As a result, practice by small units was accomplished on the Ninth 

Street sidewalk behind the Barracks or in local school playgrounds. A 

Leatherneck article in November 1955 explained that for company drill the 

practice "takes place at a District park on the other side of the Anacostia river, 



63 

Interview with Jack T. Kline, Lieutenant Colonel, USMC (Ret.), 

Washington, D.C., 12 April 1979. 

Interview with Chapman. 
Berkeley letter. 
66 Quoted in Suhosky, "Eighth and Eye," p. 19. 



57 



across the Eleventh Street bridge." 

While serving at the Barracks during the initiation of the Evening 
Parades, Colonel Marousek commented that the "Eighth and Eye parade deck 
was the second best lawn in the nation's capital — rivaled only by that of the 
White House." Thus, with the use of the resplendent setting of the Barracks, 
imagination, and the Barracks Marines' flare for showmanship, the parades that 
were initiated in 193^ were eventually to become a showcase for the cere- 
monial prowess of the Marines and the musical eminence of the Marine Band. 

The principal ceremony of the Barracks today is generally considered 
to be the Friday Evening Parade at the Post. The weekly Tuesday Sunset 
Parade at the Marine Corps War Memorial, however, in certain respect 
pre-dates the Evening Parade. The Marine Corps War Memorial dedication 
ceremonies were performed on 10 November 195^ with President Dwight D. 
Eisenhower as the honored guest of the Marine Corps. During the next year, 
1955, the Barracks initiated weekly parades at the monument. A November 
1955 Leatherneck magazine article commented that the latest addition to the 

Barracks "schedule is playing at Thursday evening colors at the Marine 

69 
Memorial, across the Potomac in Arlington." ' As were the beginning parades 

at the Barracks prior to their evolution into more formal ceremonies, the 

parade at the Iwo 3ima statue was originally a combined formal guard mount 

and Colors ceremony with the addition of the featured sequence of the 

traditional three volleys and "Taps." The ceremony, honoring the memory of 

United States Marines who had given their lives to their country since 10 



Ibid., p. 20. 

Interview with Marousek. 

(La 

Suhosky, "Eighth and Eye," p. 20. 



58 



November 1775, was initially conducted in the late afternoon, at 1630. 
Throughout 1955 and 1956 Marine War Memorial guard mount parades evolved 
into a more formal ceremony. Eventually the parade was conducted at a new 
day and time, on Tuesday at 1930, and continues so to the present time. 

Today in recognition of the significance of the 1934 introduction of 
the Sunset Parades to the ceremonial missions and reputation of the Barracks, 
the parades at the War Memorial are referred to as Sunset Parades. Meanwhile 
the ceremony at the Barracks came to be known as the Evening Parade. 



CHAPTER V 
THE EVENING PARADES SINCE 1957 

The First Evening Parade 

Throughout the history of Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., the 
garrison has performed numerous missions. Initially the Barracks was the 
Marine Corps and as such executed all the missions assigned to the Corps. In 
the early years the post was Headquarters Marine Corps, the site for all major 
Marine training, and a source for expeditionary forces to serve in support of the 
country's national security interests. Although the Barracks performed multiple 
tasks, the ceremonial mission of the Eighth and I Streets Barracks was over the 
years an integral aspect of duty for Marines assigned to the garrison. But it 
was the Evening Parade in 1957 that finally conferred on the Barracks the 
official mission "to provide Marines for ceremonial functions as directed." 

The Evening Parade, however, was only one aspect of the official 
assignment of ceremonial tasks to the Barracks. In the aftermath of World War 
II the nation's defense establishment was reorganized by the provisions of the 
National Security Act of 1948. The act assigned the Marine Corps the statutory 
missions of seizing and defending advanced naval bases, providing security 
detachments for naval vessels and installations, developing amphibious doctrine, 
and other tasks relating to projecting sea power ashore. To accomplish these 
missions the regular establishment of the Marine Corps was divided into three 
elements: operating forces, supporting establishment, and other assignments. 



Ceremonies Manual (Washington, D.C.: Marine Barracks Order 
P5060.39D, 1 May 1979), cover sheet. 

59 



60 



Marine Corps operating forces consist primarily of combat units and 
security detachments. The other assignments includes those Marines assigned 
to serve with the Marine Corps Reserve, staffs of service training units, or joint 
and liaison duty. The Marine Corps supporting establishment consists of such 
organizations as the Marine Corps Development and Education Command, 
recruit depots, training bases, aviation activities, recruiting services, supply 
installations, and Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. Although there are 
numerous barracks in the Corps, the one in the nation's capital is the only one 
designated as a distinct activity within the supporting establishment. It is in 
this context of support to the Marine Corps as a whole that the Eighth and Eye 
Barracks is responsible for providing Marines for ceremonial duties and special 
security tasks. Ceremonial missions came to be embodied in the performances 
of the Evening Parade at the Barracks. 

Thus the winter of 1956-1957 was a season that would have significant 
implications for the "Oldest Post of the Corps" and its ceremonial future. It 
was during this time that the experimental idea of the Evening Parade began to 
develop and near fruition. The original idea for the conduct of the Evening 
Parade came from the new Commanding Officer of the Barracks at Eighth and 
Eye, Colonel Leonard F. Chapman, 3r. Although the parade's heritage had been 
entwined with the ceremonial tattoo performed by Marines since the early 
1800s, and possibly since the American Revolution, the ceremony witnessed its 
most dramatic and innovative changes under the direction of the Barracks' 
enterprising new leader, Colonel Chapman. 

The chronicles of Marine Corps history and tradition reveal a con- 
tinuing association and relationship with the Far East and the British Royal 



61 



Marines. Consequently, it is not surprising that the current Evening Parade's 
origin may be traced to both sources. Prior to Colonel Chapman's transfer to 
Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., he was the Commanding Officer of Marine 
Barracks, Yokosuka, Japan. In a distant land with limited entertainment 
opportunities, Colonel Chapman believed it important to maintain and motivate 
his Marines and the base's Navy people with a continuing sense of pride in their 
military and their country. 

As the Yokosuka Barracks Commanding Officer in the mid-1950s, 
Colonel Chapman instituted weekly Marine parades, which quickly became a 
popular attraction on the base. Attendance at the parades, however, was not 
restricted to military people and their dependents. Colonel Chapman dis- 
covered that a significant number of local Japanese citizens were enthusiastic 
about the parades and regularly attended the ceremonies. In recognition of the 
favorable reception of the military reviews in Yokosuka by the general public, 
Colonel Chapman sought to expand the idea of a regular public parade upon his 
arrival at Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. 

Another influence upon today's Evening Parade, which originated in 
the fall of 1956, was a night ceremony by the famous British ceremonial units. 
General Randolph McC. Pate, the Twenty-First Commandant of the Marine 
Corps, received an invitation from the British Royal Marines for the United 
States Marines to participate in the renowned Searchlight Tattoo to be held in 
Bermuda. As the premier ceremonial unit in the Marine Corps, the Marines at 
the Eighth and Eye Barracks accepted the invitation. The Searchlight Tattoo 
was an impressive and inspiring military pageant performed at night using an 



Interview with Leonard F. Chapman, Jr., General, USMC (Ret.), 
Washington, D.C, 1* May 1978. 



62 



elaborate lighting and spotlight system to highlight the various ceremonial 
sequences and features. The colorful pageantry, conspicuous by the contrasts 
of darkness and radiant streaks of light, impressed the visiting Marines from the 
barracks. Thus the visit to Britain's Searchlight Tattoo and the experiences 
with the public parades in Japan inspired a similar parade at the Barracks. 

During the winter of 1956-57, Colonel Chapman developed his idea of 
conducting the Barracks' parades in the evening hours. As at the Yokosuka 
Barracks, Colonel Chapman's motives were to enhance the ceremonial profi- 
ciency of the Marines and promote a sense of pride in Corps and country. He 
was interested in staging the ceremony at a convenient time for the general 
public to view the parade as well as to take maximum advantage of various 
lighting effects. The parade, which had previously virtually excluded atten- 
dance by the public because of its inconvenient performance time of mid-to- 
late afternoon, attracted almost 3,000 guests to the first evening ceremony. 
The more convenient performance time and the visual effects of nighttime 
proved the experiment an unqualified success. To this date the Evening Parade 
has begun every Friday night at 2100, May through mid-September, at Marine 
Barracks, Washington, D.C. However, for several years the April, late 
September, October, and November parades continued to be performed at 
1700. 72 

In planning the parade sequence and format, Colonel Chapman insisted 
that the parade adhere to strict regulations. The parade drill would be 
according to "the book" with no fancy theatrics, no trick drill, and no "Queen 
Anne Salutes," which frequently characterized drill routines of that period. The 
parade would be military in each and every detail; its reputation would be based 



72 Ibid. 



63 



upon its military precision and precise execution of regulation drill movements. 
Under the direction of Colonel Chapman's demanding leadership, these guide- 
lines became the basic premise of the parade as the initial planning matured 

73 
into actual execution of the plan. 

As the winter season softened to spring, practices and rehearsals 
became the daily routine at the Barracks. Literally months, weeks, days, and 
hours of tedious practice were devoted to drill maneuvers and executions that 
would require only seconds to perform. From the beginning there was only one 
goal— the ultimate objective of perfection. Then, once achieved, the Marines 
practiced at perfection. The parade was to represent a hallmark of ceremonial 
excellence to be achieved only through the utmost dedication of all concerned. 
The ceremonies performed by Barracks Marines represent the Marine Corps to 
millions of spectators each year. Thus each Marine and every ceremony must 
demonstrate the utmost in pride, professionalism, and esprit, because Barracks' 
ceremonies express the dignity that is the heritage of our nation. 

Yet despite the formidable practice demands, probably the least 
difficulty in preparing for the first Evening Parade was training the individual 
Marines for the ceremony. Marines have traditionally responded to challenges, 
and the idea of the Evening Parade was no exception. Moreover, the Barracks 
had the distinct advantage of having been the center of formal Marine 
ceremonies since its founding in 1801. Since the Sunset Parade's appearance as 
a regular attraction in 1934, more than two decades of ceremonial experience 
with a weekly parade were of significant assistance in effecting the transition 
to the Evening Parade in 1957. The decision to conduct the parade in 
accordance with regulations and the determination to modify the then current 



73 

Interview with L. A. Marousek, Colonel, USMC (Ret.), Washington, 



D.C., 12 August 1978. 



64 



Sunset Parades into a somewhat more elaborate Evening Parade provided for a 
modest and graduated transition of the ceremonial abilities of the Marines. 
Thus parade preparations began to steadily advance with the basic ingredients 
of enthusiastic Marines, ceremonial experience, and well-defined regulations. 
The Marines were attacking a new objective and challenge. 

Initially referred to as "Moonlight Parades," or less often as "Search- 
light Parades," the ceremony eventually became popularly and simply known as 
the "Evening Parade." The unparalleled public acceptance of the professionally 
proficient and entertaining military ceremony surprised even the most optimis- 
tic proponents at the Barracks. Its success, however, was achieved by those 
individual Marines who committed themselves to the many months, days, and 
hours of practices and rehearsals which focused on every minute detail of the 
parade. 

In the twenty -five years since its inception, the Evening Parade has 
become a unique patriotic tradition of the "Oldest Post of the Corps." The 
Barracks' ceremonies are designed to enhance the respect for, and confidence 
in, the abilities of the Marine Corps as well as the country it represents. It is a 
special attraction of the Washington, D.C., tourism events calendar and a 
favored affair within the capital's social scene. Presidents and vice-presidents, 
Supreme Court justices, cabinet officials and ambassadors, senators and 
congressmen, directors of governmental agencies, and dignitaries from 
throughout the world have reviewed or attended performances of the Evening 
Parade at the Eighth and Eye Barracks. 

The Evening Parade's first honored guest and reviewing official, 5 3uly 
1957, was Lieutenant Karl S. Day, USMC, a retired pioneer in Marine aviation. 
Since that first parade, presidents, vice-presidents, princes, heads of state, and 



65 



virtually all major cabinet officials in the government have reviewed a Marine 
Barracks ceremony. 

In preparing for the first Evening Parade, no detail was overlooked. In 
anticipation of what proved to be the initiation of a historic ceremony, it 
seemed that every Marine at the Post became involved. The Commandant of 
the Marine Corps in 1957, General Randolph M. Pate, was no exception. It 
occurred to General Pate in May 1957 that, with the parade now envisioned as a 
public parade and with a new starting time, the Barracks should consider 
constructing a sign in front of the main gate with an appropriate announcement. 

General Pate suggested that the sign be dignified "possibly with a Marine Corps 

7k 
Emblem at the top" and display an appropriate announcement. General Pate's 

recommended sign, to this day, announces every Evening Parade at the 

Barracks. 

In critiquing and modifying the parade, no aspect of the ceremony is 

overlooked. In the closing month of the 1957 parade season, Brigadier General 

Victor Krulak visited the Barracks to observe the ceremony. General Krulak 

was an ardent fan of the parade, and at the conclusion of the pageant Colonel 

Chapman asked the general for his comments. As an astute observer and 

wordmaster, General Krulak offered one suggestion. He noticed that the 

announcement describing the Marine Corps Battle Color concluded with "It is 

the privilege of Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., 'the Oldest Post of the 

Corps' to be charged with the custody of this Color." General Krulak proposed 

that the word "charged" be changed to "entrusted." The change of one word, 

which has survived to this day, attests to the scrutiny that each ceremony 



7k 

Randolph McC. Pate, letter to Leonard F. Chapman, Jr., 14 May 

1957, Operations Office Archives, Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. 



66 



75 
receives. It illustrates the detail with which every parade is reviewed. 

The Influence of Parade Critiques 

As parades have evolved over the centuries, so too have the cere- 
monies at the Barracks experienced modifications. The Sunset Parades that 
began in 1934 and which transitioned into the Evening Parade in 1957 have been 
accompanied by continual evaluation. Since that time when ceremonies became 
the most distinctive mission of the Eighth and Eye Barracks, the parades have 
been accompanied by rigorous critiques. Perfection in every ceremony may be 
an elusive goal; however, the conscientious critiques that evaluate every parade 
and rehearsal insure that each is performed at the highest possible standards of 
excellence. The critiques of the various ceremonial activities of the Barracks 
accomplish two fundamental objectives. First, the critiques instantaneously 
establish the ideal to which all ceremonies will aspire. Second, the critiques 
serve to enhance the continuity and to preserve the integrity of the Evening 
Parade. Although the critiques may at times be exceptionally unyielding, they 
are impartially rendered and conscientiously received. Thus the critiques are 
accepted as a means of perfecting the performances and of insuring the 
continuation of the traditional aspects of the parade. 

With respect to the model of professionalism that the parades repre- 
sent, critiques are synonymous with each rehearsal in the early months of 
parade season preparation. As officer and key personnel workouts begin, the 
critique sessions may equal the time devoted to the actual rehearsal. As the 
practice schedule progresses, so too do the critiques. Battalion drills are 
evaluated in minute detail to insure the uniformity of execution of every 
individual within his unit and every unit in relation to every other. The 



Interview with Chapman. 



67 



synchronization of individual to individual and unit to unit is the primary task. 
The Phase I critiques become more formalized and primarily target those 
discrepancies that must be corrected in the subsequent Phase II rehearsals. 

The Phase I practices are abbreviated versions of the Evening Parade 
that concentrate primarily on those sequences involving the major troop 
maneuvers and executions of the respective units. The practices usually last 
about twenty minutes. Immediately following a critique of the Phase I 
practice, the Phase II rehearsals are conducted. The Phase lis constitute a 
complete sixty- to seventy-minute practice of the Evening Parade from the 
opening to the closing announcements. 

Over the years the Phase II critiques have evolved into a traditional 
ritual at the Barracks. Following the one-hour-plus Phase II practice, unit 
commanders and staff and support officers proceed to Center House for a 
formal review of the rehearsal. The standard commanding officer's pre-parade 
conference is chaired by the Barracks' executive officer. A major feature of 
the conference is the Phase II critique, which focuses attention on the 
corrections to be made for the performance that evening. Additionally, in 
further preparing for the evening's ceremony all facets of the parade are 
discussed: hosting, escorting, parking, seating, honored guests, reviewing 
official, musical selections, and other relevant information. The parade that 
Friday evening is then critically reviewed, and the first item of business on the 
agenda for Monday morning is a meeting in the office of the commanding 
officer. A critique of the ceremony is presented and discussed, and units then 
begin the rehearsal schedule anew. Thus the parade is continually evaluated to 
provide a vehicle by which every ceremony may be improved as required. 

With respect to preserving the continuity and integrity of the parade, 



68 



the many critiques conducted throughout the parade season culminate in a 
post-season parade conference. It is at this conference, attended by the 
commanding officer and his unit commanders and staff officers, that the entire 
parade season is evaluated. Although conducted since 1957 with varying 
degrees of formality, the conference became one of established procedures in 
1973, when Colonel Cooper was commanding the Barracks. The conference 
format includes a detailed review of the ceremonial season and, equally 
important, recommendations for modifying or improving the parade. Invariably, 
the conference will produce numerous recommendations for modifications; 
however, the integrity of the parade is usually preserved because it is only 
infrequently that modifications are accepted as appropriate to the ceremony. 

With regard to the continuity of the parade, Major Buse, the cere- 
monies coordinator in the mid-1970s, explained that he believed that one of his 
primary tasks was "to thoroughly review and evaluate any recommendations for 
changes to the Evening Parade to insure the continuity of the ceremony and to 
preserve its integrity." This was the challenge to the Barracks' operation 
officer in 1957 and it remains so to this day. Consequently, each operations 
officer impresses this fact on his relief because it is imperative that the parade 
retain its essential characteristics, yet be flexible enough to accept modifica- 
tions that will enhance the ceremony. 

Achieving this delicate balance of preserving tradition and reacting to 
the present is a formidable challenge. The traditional aspects of the ceremony, 
however, have been validated year after year. Only infrequently has the parade 
been altered, and then only in a relatively minor way. The post-season parade 



Interview with Henry W. Buse, Major, USMC, Washington, D.C., 



k December 1976. 



69 



conference has provided a forum whereby recommendations could be presented. 
This consistent evaluation system accomplishes two basic missions. First, the 
ceremony is validated as correct as it is or, second, modifications are accepted 
as deserving of incorporation into the parade in the hope of creating the perfect 
ceremony. In preserving the parade as is or in modifying it, however, it is 
essential to understand the premise of the ceremony. 

The Evening Parade is a unique ceremony within the Marine Corps. 
Traditionalists and purists may claim that the parade fails to conform to 
established regulations for a military parade, but this has admittedly never been 
the intent of the Evening Parade. This special parade is actually a synthesis of 
many types of traditional and contemporary ceremonies. The Evening Parade 
has extracted the finest and most revered features of such ceremonies as 
tattoo, retreat, evening colors, arrivals, inspections, and reviews and has 
embraced them into one grand pageant. Thus the parade may conform to no 
one ceremony, yet it is in harmony with the cherished traditions of our nation's 
military heritage. The parade is an entity unto itself and refutes comparison 
simply because in its exclusive and unrivaled way there is nothing to which it 
can be compared. 

Thus it is the original nature of the parade that permits appropriate 
modifications. But in the twenty-five years since its beginning, many of the 
changes to the parade have involved peripheral or technical alterations more 
than sequence or format changes. For example, in 1957 the Drum and Bugle 
Corps' blouses, which had been the traditional blue color since 1934, were 
changed to scarlet. The bright red color, according to Colonel Chapman, 
created a distinctive appearance for the musical unit of the Evening Parade. 
Later changes concerned lighting, parade deck modifications, weapons, 



70 



the institution of special opening announcements, and numerous other 
modifications that have created the parade of today. Thus the critique system 
and the adjustments to the evaluations have become an integral part of the 
Evening Parade. A summary of the modifications that have occurred over the 
years illustrates both the traditional and the contemporary nature of the 
Evening Parade. 

Format Modifications to Ceremonies 

In 1957, as the Sunset Parades evolved into the Evening Parade, 
several modifications were incorporated into the parade's sequence. Following 
the "Troop March On" sequence, the marching companies performed an intri- 
cate "Fix Bayonets" to musical bugle calls and drum beats- -a sequence which 
dates from a Civil War bugle call and drum roll for fixing bayonets to rifles. 
Then the Silent Drill Team and Drum and Bugle Corps performances, which had 
previously appeared after the "Pass In Review" sequence, were reversed and 
placed immediately before the "Pass In Review." In addition, a concert by the 
Marine Band followed the Silent Drill Team routine. Thus, after the "Officers 
Center," the new sequence included the Drum and Bugle Corps concert, the 
Silent Drill team routine, and a Marine Band concert. Also added was an 
orchestrated "Taps" sequence by the Marine Band and a solo "Taps" rendition by 
a bugler from the Drum and Bugle Corps to conclude the ceremony. This 
sequence of events characterized the parade throughout 1957. 

Then in 1958 the concert by the marching Marine Band following the 
Silent Drill Team was deleted. Instead, the concert element of the Marine Band 
was added to the program, and they performed a thirty-to-forty-minute 
pre-parade concert. The band concert continues to be performed to this day 
prior to the actual commencement of the Evening Parade. Thus, within one 



71 



year of the introduction of the first Evening Parade on 5 July 1957, the format 
of the ceremony was refined to the degree that it has survived with only minor 
modifications in the past twenty-four years. 

In the mid 1960s the "Assembly" and "Two Bells" sequences were added 
to the introducing segments of the parade. Then in 1973 the "Assembly" and 
"Two Bells" sequences were reversed and a "Report" sequence was added to 
follow the "Assembly" segment. Furthermore, following the "Retire the Colors" 
phase near the end of the parade, an "Officers Dismissed" sequence was added. 
This then characterized the parade format until 1977, when the Drum and Bugle 
Corps and Silent Drill Team appearances were again reversed to their original 
1947 sequence. 

Although additions to the format and sequence modifications have 
appeared over the years, most of the alterations involved introductory aspects 
of the parade or the order of appearance of specialized units. Thus the primary 
sequences in the parade remain essentially true to regulations. The Evening 
Parade sequence of events upon entering its twenty-fifth year is as follows: 

Concert 

U.S. Marine Band 

Two Bells 

Assembly 



"Song of the Marines" 



Report 
Officers Call 
Barracks Mascot 
Rampart Fanfare 

Troop March On 



"Jellico" 



72 



"Grand Old Flag" 



"Scotland the Brave" 



"The Thunderer" 
Fix Bayonets 
March on the Colors 

Sound Off 
Slow March 

National Anthem 
Manual of Arms 
Publish the Orders 
Officers Center 

Silent Drill 
Concert 

U.S. Marine Drum and Bugle Corps 
Honors to the Reviewing Official 
Pass In Review 

"Semper Fidelis" and "Marines' Hymn" 



"Officer of the Day" 



Retire the Colors 



Officers Dismissed 



March Off 



"National Emblem" 



"Anchors Aweigh" 



"This Is My Country" 



Taps 



77 



"The Evening Parade," Marine Barracks Parade Program, 
4 September 1981. 



73 



In maintaining a traditional yet flexible approach to the parade 
format, the Evening Parade has preserved its integrity, yet remained adaptable 
to modification. Although the basic ceremony has thus retained its continuity, 
numerous peripheral or technical changes have been instituted over the years. 

One such modification that is now an institution in the Evening Parade 
is the mascot sequence. Although the Barracks acquired a mascot in 1956, it 
was later during the years of the Evening Parade that he became a participant 
and not just a spectator at the parade. Over the years the stories that have 
become associated with the mascot have become legendary. An official 
Barracks order was published to provide detailed instructions for the care and 
training of the mascot. An official Service Record Book was created for the 
mascot, and he became subject to all orders and directives governing the 
enlistment, promotion, and discipline of all Marines. 

The mascot was eventually named Chesty, in honor of legendary 
Marine Lieutenant General Lewis "Chesty" Puller. Although most of the 
mascots have usually conducted themselves in a disciplined manner, others have 
achieved a notorious reputation. Chesty II was probably the most undisciplined, 
and his conduct earned him official reprimands for disrespect and an unautho- 
rized absence. 

Chesty III, the son of the riotous Chesty II, was enlisted and assumed 
duties as the Barracks mascot upon the retirement of his father. Unlike his 
dad, Chesty III was a model Marine. His Service Record Book revealed that he 
received promotions in a timely manner and conducted himself in a distin- 
guished manner. In fact, Chesty III received the Good Conduct Medal in 
recognition of his superior performance. 

Chesty IV continued the reputation of his predecessor, but it was a 



Ik 



later mascot who achieved a memorable feat as the Barracks mascot. During 
President Lyndon B. Johnson's visit to the Barracks on 22 September 1967, 
Colonel Joseph Fegan, Jr., remembered that "Chesty strutted down center 
walk, halted, sat, and looked the President directly in the eye." The President 
smiled, turned to the commanding officer, and said, "I'm familiar with the 

Marine Corps' fantastic training accomplishments, but this is most unusual. 

78 
Well done." Colonel Fegan accepted the compliment with nary a hint that it 

was the mascot's first and, as it proved to be, last such feat. 

The Barracks mascot continued to perform in an exemplary manner, 
and in recognition of the twenty years of performances by the English Bulldog a 
formal Change of Command ceremony was held at the Barracks on 10 
November 1978. Corporal Chesty V, who had been inducted into the Marine 
Corps three years earlier, was relieved of duties by Chesty VI. The new mascot 
had enlisted in the Marine Corps in Saint Louis, Missouri, on 2 November 1978 
and had been flown to the Barracks for the ceremony. After a winter of 
ceremonial training Chesty VI first performed during the 1979 parade season. 

Chesty VI served honorably as the Barracks mascot, but his career was 
suddenly ended after a Friday Evening Parade in 1981, when he suffered a heart 
seizure and died. The unexpected loss of Chesty VI posed the problem of 
locating and training a replacement within one week. Immediately requests 
were forwarded throughout the Marine Corps. Within days a Marine unit in 
Tennessee reported that it had a Marine lance corporal who had all the 
qualifications. Thus Lance Corporal Bodacious Little was issued temporary 
additional duty orders from Tennessee to Washington, D.C., and arrived on a 
special airplane flight. With a minimum of practice, Lance Corporal Little 



78 

Interview with Joseph C. Fegan, Jr., Lieutenant General, USMC, 

Quantico, Virginia, 18 September 1977. 



75 



performed admirably in the parade and was permanently assigned to the 
Barracks in 1981. 79 

The critiques of the Evening Parade during its first year revealed that 
the Barracks had no saluting battery, a discrepancy that was immediately 
corrected. The Eighth and Eye Barracks has hosted a myriad of famous and 
official visitors to the nation's capital. But one distinguished guest at the 
garrison was notable for his title as well as for the fact that his arrival 
prompted the first 21 -gun salute ever fired at the Barracks. Thus one of the 
most impressive ceremonies for one of the Marines' most honored guests was 
the 19 October 1957 Honors Ceremony for His Royal Highness Prince Philip, 
Duke of Edinburgh, Captain General, British Royal Marines. 

Prior to Prince Philip's arrival at the Barracks, the Marines had no 
record of ever having fired a 21 -gun salute at the Post. But the Commandant, 
General Pate, expressed the desire that an appropriate firing battery be 
immediately obtained and that gun crews be trained for the occasion. At the 
time, explained the Honor Guard Commander, Lieutenant Colonel William N. 

Miller, "We haven't had a saluting battery here before. We were going to bring 

80 
these guns here anyway, but the occasion speeded things up a bit." 

The guns arrived from the Norfolk Navy Yard and were temporarily 

located at the Washington Navy Yard. It was there that a hastily organized gun 

crew, composed of Marine cooks and motor transport drivers, began practicing 

saluting battery gun drill. The initial powder charges were too heavy, and the 

resounding concussion broke numerous windows at the Navy Yard. But 



21 August 1978. 

80 "Phi 
20 October 1957. 



79 

Interview with Terrence P. Murray, Major, USMC, Washington, D.C., 



80 

"Philip Inspects Marines, Given 21 -Gun Salute," Washington Star , 



76 



continued experimentation and reduction in powder charges were practiced, and 
eventually the crew and the guns were ready. The Marines then painted the 

guns green, transported them to the Barracks, and stationed them temporarily 

81 
in the parking lot at the south end of the parade deck. 

Then in honor of the arrival of Prince Philip, the Marines fired their 
first 21 -gun salute at the Barracks. A local reporter wrote that "Two 
three-pound guns fired the salvos that reverberated across the historic parade 
ground." 

During the spring of 1958 the saluting battery was permanently 
installed at the south end of the parade deck. The permanent battery was next 
fired to herald the arrival of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Constantine, 
Duke of Sparta, on 20 November 1958. 

The saluting battery is now fired to announce the arrival of honored 
guests at the Barracks during Marine Corps Full Honors Arrivals and other 
appropriate occasions. As the saluting battery procedures were developed, 
however, the gun crew became a specially trained section from the ceremonial 
marching companies. 

Although most innovations to the Evening Parade were attempted only 
after considerable study there was one notable exception. A late-season 
Evening Parade in 1958 produced a spectacular and unexpected "first" at the 
Barracks. This event occurred during the lowering of the colors sequence. At 
that time the audience's attention is directed toward the spotlighted National 



81 

Interview with Marousek. 

82 

"Philip Inspects Marines." 

83 

Prince Constantine Ceremony Album, Marine Barracks Archives, 

Washington, D.C., 20 November 1958, no page. 



77 



Color flying atop the one-hundred-foot Barracks flagpole. As the National 
Anthem commenced and the flag began its descent, the Barracks duty mainte- 
nance chief blew the Barracks boiler tubes. Suddenly, with perfect timing, the 
chimney, located on the roof of the ramparts directly behind the flag, erupted 
with an impressive array of flying sparks signifying "the rocket's red glare." 

Although the sight was rather spectacular, Colonel Jonas M. Piatt, the 
Commanding Officer, distrusted the inherent timing requirements and decided 
not to attempt a repeat of this unrehearsed and unplanned "first." Thereafter, 
the duty maintenance chief requested permission to blow the boiler tubes. All 
such requests were denied, however, on parade nights. 

The Continuation of Combined Ceremonies 

The Sunset Parade innovation of inviting selected ceremonial units to 
participate in Barracks ceremonies continued during the Evening Parade. One 
of the most spectacular combined ceremonies was conducted in September 
1957. That year the Barracks* ceremonial detachments participated in parades 
with the famous Massed Pipers and Regimental Band of Her Majesty's "Black 
Watch" Regiment. The "Black Watch," or Royal Highland Regiment, is one of 
England's most colorful fighting units and its history dates to 1725. The "Black 
Watch" fought as an ally of the First Marine Division during the Korean War, 
and the ceremony was a tribute to the ceremonial and combat excellence of the 
two commands. 

As a result of the professional respect born of this combined cere- 
mony, Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., was invited to participate in the 



Interview with Jonas M. Piatt, Major General, USMC (Ret.), 
Washington, D.C., 24 July 1977. 

85 

"The Evening Parade," Marine Barracks Parade Program, September 

1957. 



78 



Edinburgh Festival Tattoo in August 1958. The majestic Esplanade of Edin- 
burgh's famous thousand-year-old castle resounded with the music, drumbeats, 
and marching precision of one of the world's most famous spectacles — the 
Edinburgh Festival Tattoo — and the Marine Barracks' ceremonial performances 
were highly acclaimed. In connection with this visit, the Marine detachment 
also performed at the 1958 Brussels World Fair. 

Another memorable combined ceremony involved the Evening Parade 
pageantry with the Royal Marine Tattoo. The ceremony was performed at 
Marine Barracks on 28 September 1965. The reviewing officials were His 
Excellency Sir Patrick Dean, British Ambassador, and General Wallace M. 
Greene, 3r., Commandant of the Marine Corps. The participating British units 
included the Royal Marine Band, Royal Marine Commando Motorcycle Squad, 

Pipes and Drums of the Royal Scots Greys and Scots Guards, and the British 

86 
Columbian Highland Lassies. 

Probably one of the more memorable combined ceremonies was one in 
which the Barracks Marines had the opportunity to perform before General 
Shepherd, the Marine who contributed so much to the ceremonial missions and 
reputation of the Barracks. The Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the United States 
Marine Corps and Fort Henry Guard combined ceremonies was celebrated 
during the 1979 parade season. The Marine Barracks Battle Color Detachment 
visited Fort Henry on 25-29 August 1979. The ceremonies were special because 
the Governor General of Canada and General Lemuel C. Shepherd, 3r., were the 
reviewing officials on 25 and 26 August, respectively. 

Major Fred McConnell, Canadian Forces, the Fort Henry Guard 
Commander, acknowledged that it was a privilege to have the two distinguished 



September 1965. 



86 

"The Evening Parade," Marine Barracks Parade Program, 28 



79 



reviewing officials. At the conclusion of every ceremony at the garrison in 
Kingston, the Canadian detachment marches off the parade deck to the strains 
of the "Marines' Hymn." An announcement explains that this is performed in 
honor of General Shepherd because of his contributions to the Fort Henry Guard 

and his influence in initiating the Canadian and United States Marine combined 

87 
parades. Equally prominent was the appearance of the Governor General, the 

Right Honorable Edward R. Schreyer, a direct appointment of the Queen of 

England, who is equivalent in protocol and prestige to the President of the 

United States of America. The ceremony in honor of the anniversary at Old 

Fort Henry was the first time in history that the Governor General had served 

as a reviewing official at the Fort. 

The Evening Parades and Presidents 

Recognizing the standing history of the Barracks and the personal 

interest President Jefferson displayed in selecting the site, the Twenty-Second 

Commandant of the Marine Corps, General David M. Shoup, acted to correct an 

obvious discrepancy. Although President Jefferson selected the location for the 

Barracks and directed its construction, no subsequent President had ever visited 

the garrison for an official military review. Consequently, General Shoup wrote 

President John F. Kennedy that "a follow-up inspection by any Chief Executive 

to affirm compliance with President Jefferson's orders appears to have been 

88 
somewhat delayed." Acknowledging that the oversight had reached the 

rather lengthy period of one hundred and sixty-one years, General Shoup thus 

extended an invitation to President Kennedy to attend an Evening Parade. 



87 

Interview with Fred McConnell, Major, Canadian Forces (Ret.), 

Kingston, Ontario, Canada, 26 August 1979. 

88 

David M. Shoup, letter to John F. Kennedy, 18 June 1962, Marine 

Barracks Archives, Washington, D.C. 



80 



President Kennedy thus became the first Chief Executive to review a 
ceremony at the Barracks when he visited the Post on 12 July 1962. On that 
occasion, President Kennedy concluded his remarks to the Marines by stating, 

"It is a great satisfaction for me to report that President Thomas Jefferson's 

89 
command has been very successfully carried out." Traditionally performed 

only at the Barracks, the Evening Parade is usually an exclusive Barracks 

ceremony. In 1963, however, in response to a request by President Kennedy, 

the Barracks' units returned the Chief Executive's visit to the Post by staging a 

special Evening Parade on the South Lawn of the White House. 

President Lyndon B. Johnson became the second Commander-in-Chief 

to attend the Evening Parade when he visited the Barracks on 22 September 

1967. Then, again in a response to a personal request from the President, a 

special Eighth and Eye ceremony was conducted on the South Lawn of the White 

House on 8 May 1968. The Evening Parade was performed in honor of the Prime 

Minister of Thailand, who was President Johnson's personal guest. The Evening 

Parade was reportedly a favorite ceremony of President Johnson, and was once 

90 
again conducted at the White House on 11 September 1968. 

Although the Barracks' ceremonial detachments performed selected 

ceremonies throughout the world, until the special White House command 

performances, the Evening Parade was reserved for the Barracks only. The 

Barracks' units, however, had the honor and privilege of conducting a special 

Evening Parade at the Bethesda Naval Hospital on 18 September 1969 for 



89 

John F. Kennedy, transcript of remarks by the President at the 

Evening Parade, 12 July 1962, Marine Barracks Archives, Washington, D.C. 

90 

Interview with Fegan. 



81 



Marines wounded during the Vietnam conflict. Then on 18 July 1974 the 
Evening Parade was staged at historic Mount Vernon, home of the nation's first 
President, George Washington. 

President Jimmy Carter became the third Chief Executive to visit 
Marine Barracks as a reviewing official for the Evening Parade. On k August 
1978 President and Mrs. Carter joined General Louis H. Wilson, Commandant of 
the Marine Corps, and his wife, as special guests of the Barracks ceremony. At 
the conclusion of the parade, President Carter signed the Barracks guest book 

by writing, "The Marines were at their best- -Superb! It made me even prouder 

91 
of our great country and its fighting men." In a later personal note to the 

Commandant, President Carter again thanked the Marines for the parade and 

92 
closed by stating, "It was great!" 

As with Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, President Carter followed 
his visit to the Barracks by requesting a special performance by the Barracks' 
ceremonial detachments. But unlike the previous two Chief Executives, who 
had requested a special Evening Parade on the White House South Lawn, 
President Carter asked for an unprecedented performance at Camp David, 
Maryland, during the historic Middle East Peace Summit. The Evening Parade 
on 7 September 1978 was a unique opportunity for the Barracks Marines to 
perform for three heads of state: President Carter of the United States of 
America, President Anwar Sadat of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and Prime 
Minister Menachem Begin of Israel. 

Although the preparations for the parade at an unfamiliar location 



91 

Guest Book, Marine Barracks Archives, Washington, D.C., k August 

1978, unpaged. 

92 

Jimmy Carter, letter to Louis H. Wilson, 5 August 1978, Marine 

Corps History and Museums Division, Washington, D.C. 



82 



posed significant challenges to the ceremonial units, the parade achieved 
spectacular reviews. The special security precautions at the presidential 
retreat restricted the marching units to only one advance rehearsal, which 
because of rain was only a partial practice. Consequently, the critical lighting 
sequence was never rehearsed with the units prior to the actual performance. 
A mountain plateau, which had been converted into a Softball field because of 
President Carter's love for the sport, was used as the parade ground. Again, as 
in the 19*f0s and 1950s, the Marines were marching across a softball field. The 
lack of a night rehearsal, the use of imported lights, the development of a new 
lighting script, and the unfamiliar terrain combined to present the Barracks 
with a challenging beginning in conducting the ceremony. The Camp David 
parade marked one of the few occasions that an Evening Prade was performed 
without extensive rehearsals. Thus when the ceremony was actually performed 
on the evening of 7 September 1978, it was the first time that particular 
ceremony had ever been performed at Camp David. Yet it achieved compli- 
mentary reviews. 

The 18 September 1978 edition of Newsweek magazine described the 
event: 

By all odds the most spectacular public event of the summit last 
week--as well as one of the oddest — was a 45-minute, spit-and- 
polish display of precision marching, drum, and bugling and tossing 
of rifles with fixed bayonets by a detachment from Washington's 
Marine Barracks. Some observers thought it a bit out of place to 
hold a military display at a peace conference, but the three leaders 
were enthusiastic.93 

In the Marines' guest book President Carter wrote, "You all made our 

country proud." Beneath that, President Sadat noted, "It was wonderful." In 

small and careful handwriting, Prime Minister Begin penned, "It was a great 



93 

"Hideaway Summit," Newsweek , 18 September 1978, p. 26. 



83 



94 

performance of a great army. In deep appreciation for the famous Marines." 

President Ronald W. Reagan and his wife visited Marine Barracks on 
11 June 1981 to share an Evening Parade with General and Mrs. Robert H. 
Barrow. In a later letter of thanks to the Commandant, President Reagan 
wrote that upon seeing the parade his "heart was full of pride." The President 

concluded, "I wish that every American could see the Evening Parade and share 

95 

the magnificent experience we had." 

Thus four United States Presidents have reviewed a ceremony at the 
Eighth and Eye Marine Barracks, and two other Presidents have been honored 
guests at Marine Corps observances at the Marine Corps War Memorial adjacent 
to Arlington National Cemetery. 

President Dwight D. Eisenhower served as the reviewing official 
during the dedication ceremonies of the Marine Corps War Memorial on 10 
November 1954. President Gerald Ford, in honor of the annual Marine Corps 
Memorial Ceremony and the nation's Bicentennial celebrations, participated in 
ceremonies at the monument on 10 November 1976. 

The letters of thanks from the Presidents are representative of the 
hundreds of unsolicited letters that the Barracks receives annually. The 
compliments invariably focus on the idea that the parades are "a moving 
experience," "an emotional and patriotic event," and "a ceremony that every 
American should see." Captain Richard D. Hamilton, the current Barracks 
Adjutant, explained that the popularity of the parade continues to increase. 
Although seating is limited to 3,600 guests, requests for reservations usually 



94 

Guest Book, Marine Barracks Archives, Washington, D.C., 

7 September 1978, unpaged. 

95 

Ronald W, Reagan, letter to Robert H. Barrow, 23 June 1981, 

Marine Corps History and Museums Division, letter. 



85 



the Marine Corps' correspondence training program, the company's drilling and 
marching proficiency became equal to that of Ceremonial Guard Company. The 
excellence of the Institute's marching ability, the continuing increase in 
ceremonial commitments at the Barracks, and the decreasing support require- 
ments of the Institute Marines because of technological automation at the 
Institute combined to prompt a minor reorganization at the Barracks in 1978. 
In that year Ceremonial Guard Company and Marine Corps Institute Company 
became known as Company A and Company B, respectively. More important 
than the name change, however, was the fact that both companies now shared 
equally in the ceremonial commitments of the Barracks. Captain Peter T. 
Metzger, the Company B Commander, recalled that "having the opportunity to 
perform at the White House, Pentagon, and Capitol Building, as well as the 

Barracks' ceremonies, caused a tremendous increase in the morale of the 

. . 97 

Marines in the company." 

Thus the present day ceremonial units — Marine Band, Marine Drum 
and Bugle Corps, Company A and Company B — share relatively equally, 
depending upon the commitment requirement, the ceremonial tasks performed 
by the Barracks Marines. Furthermore, Headquarters and Services Company 
provides the support so essential to the success of the ceremonies. Also, the 
Marine Corps Institute Marines provide the critical hosts and escorts, and other 
selected special details and individuals necessary for the excellence of the 
ceremonies. The ceremonial demands of the Barracks require the dedication of 
every Marine at the garrison. 

Although Captain Mary Whitmore was the first Woman Marine to 



97 

Interview with Peter T. Metzger, Captain, USMC, Washington, 



D.C., 12 September 1977. 



86 



march in the Sunset Parade in 1954, Corporal Chris E. Greenway, who 
participated in the 12 May 1978 Evening Parade as the Time Orderly, became 
the first Woman Marine to perform in the Evening Parade. 

Private First Class Myrna L. Jepsen and Private First Class Debra A. 
Spratley were the first two Women Marines to perform as armed members of a 
marching platoon in the 18 August 1978 Evening Parade. After five months of 
intensive close order drill training, the two Women Marines were armed with 
M-l rifles and assigned to heretofore male-only platoons for ceremonial duty. 
The women were dressed in trousers and blouses identical to their male 
counterparts. Their shoes and hats were specially designed to conform in 
appearance to those of the male Marines. 

Private First Class Jepsen also has the distinction of being the first 
Woman Marine to participate in an Armed Forces Full Honors Arrival at the 
White House. On 17 May 1978, in the Grand Foyer of the White House, Private 
First Class Jepsen participated in the arrival ceremony for President Kaunda of 
Zambia. The ceremony was conducted indoors because of inclement weather, 
and the cordon was unarmed because of weapons restrictions in the White 
House. On 29 January 1979, PFC Jepsen participated in the Armed Forces Full 
Honors Arrival for First Vice Premier Deng of the People's Republic of China. 
The ceremony was conducted on the White House South Lawn, and PFC Jepsen 
thus became the first Woman Marine to march in an armed status with the 
Marine Corps Honor Guard Platoon during a White House state arrival. 

Lance Corporal Cynthia K. Davis became the first Woman Marine to 
be assigned to and perform with the United States Marine Drum and Bugle 
Corps. A baritone bugler, Lance Corporal Davis first performed with the Drum 
and Bugle Corps during a Play-Off Ceremony on 19 July 1979. Lance Corporal 



87 



Davis participated in her first Evening Parade on 20 July 1979. 

Traditionally, the final parade of the parade season at the Eighth and 
Eye Barracks is performed solely by Staff Noncommissioned Officers. The 9 
November parade which concluded the 1956 parade season was conducted in 
honor of General Randolph McC. Pate, the Twenty-First Commandant of the 
Marine Corps. In 1957, however, the United States Marines established the 
billet of Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps. Thereafter the parade finale 
each year was reviewed by the Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps. 

The Relief and Posting Ceremony for the Sergeant Major of the United 
States Marine Corps, conducted on 15 August 1979, was performed by Noncom- 
missioned Officers—corporals and below. The parade is believed to have been 
the first formal and official ceremony conducted at the Marine Barracks, 
Washington, D.C., exclusively by noncommissioned officers and non-rated 
Marines. 

The respect for the Barracks parade deck that re-emerged during the 
Sunset Parades became more pronounced with the beginning of the Evening 
Parade. Today the immaculate appearance of the Barracks and the parade deck 
is the primary responsibility of the Yards and Grounds Section. The section is 
organized under the supply officer in Headquarters and Services Company. 
These grounds crew Marines have no particular education or experience in 
horticulture. The lush green carpet of the parade deck, however, is a testament 
to their skills and dedication. The parade deck is one of the few areas in the 
nation's capital that is green during the blistering heat of the summer months. 
This feat is accomplished only by long hours of conscientious manual labor, 
devoted care, and minute attention to detail. As the high priests of the parade 
deck, the yards and grounds Marines exemplify the reverence which Marines at 



88 



the Barracks feel for the parade deck. 

Ceremonial rehearsals contribute significantly to the professionalism 
of the parades at the Barracks, and the pleasing appearance of the parade deck 
is an important asset to the total atmosphere of the Barracks' ceremonies. 
Thus to coordinate these two activities a well-defined parade deck usage 
schedule is published and monitored by the Barracks operations officer. The 
schedule allocates time to the various ceremonial units and maintenance crews 
in one-hour increments from 0700 to 1800 daily. This permits unit commanders 
to plan their ceremonial training with definite times reserved for the parade 
deck. It also insures that the yards and grounds detail will have ample time to 
prepare and maintain the grounds. A typical Monday would probably result in 
the assignment of units as follows: 0700-0800, Parade Staff; 0800-0900, 
Company A; 0900-1000, Company B; 1000-1100, Silent Drill Team; 1100-1200, 
Drum and Bugle Corps; and 1300-1800, Yards and Grounds Section. The 
maintenance crews normally use the afternoons for parade deck watering, 
cutting, edging, and similar activities. Upon request, however, the other small 
unit ceremonial details may request to practice on a portion of the parade deck. 

Tuesday morning's practice schedule on the Barracks parade deck is 
reserved primarily for those units not involved in the Sunset Parades at the 
Marine War Memorial in Arlington. Thus, while the ceremonial companies and 
the Drum and Bugle Corps are conducting Phase I and II rehearsals at the 
monument, the mascot handler, color lowering detail, chair removal section, 
and others have access to the Eighth and Eye parade deck. The remainder of 
the week's practice schedule is monitored and allocated as it is on Mondays and 
Tuesdays. Units train in the morning, and maintenance is conducted in the 
afternoon. The lawn is normally cut and groomed on Thursday in preparation 



89 



for Friday's parade. Consequently, limited practice sessions occur on the deck 
on that day. Then Friday morning is devoted to the Phase I and Phase II 
rehearsals for the parade that evening. Although the parade deck is used 
extensively, the carefully planned and monitored practice and maintenance 
schedule insures the immaculate appearance of the parade grounds at all times. 
To preserve the parade deck and to assist the groundsmen in their 
duties, several distinctive features have been added to the parade deck over the 
years. One such addition was the construction of concrete walkways. These 
sidewalks served to prevent the creation of well-defined paths or worn areas 
because of continual use by marching units. One concrete walkway, commonly 
referred to as "Center Walk," extends directly across the mid-field of the 
parade deck from the center of the arcade and the flagpole to the reviewing 
area. Although the exact date of the construction of center walk is now 
unknown, it is believed to have been built during the Barracks renovation 

program of 1901 to 1907. A photograph in the book Home of the Commandants 

98 
reveals the walkway as early as 1927. Other undated photographs in the 

Barracks' archives confirm the possibility of the walkway's having been con- 
structed in conjunction with the major rebuilding project at the turn of the 
century. Initially, center walk was a two-square-wide walk. During the winter 

of 1957 and 1958, however, Colonel Chapman directed that "the width of the 

99 
walkway be doubled" to its present four-square width. 

A second walkway, known as "Troop Walk," parallels the east arcade. 

This concrete sidewalk was also installed in early 1958 at the direction of 



98 

Schuon, Home of the Commandants , p. 4. 

99 

Interview with Chapman. 



90 



Colonel Chapman. This walkway serves as the route of advance for the 
march-on of the ceremonial companies. In addition to preserving the parade 
deck, the concrete walk serves to facilitate and highlight many of the precise 
and exact maneuvers performed by the ceremonial Marines. This walkway also 
enables the companies to practice extensively on the parade deck without 
actually having to march on the grass portion and thereby damage the 
appearance of the parade deck. 

Later, to avoid the creation of worn spots in other frequently used 
locations on the parade deck, Colonel 3onas M. Piatt, the Barracks' Com- 
manding Officer in 1959, directed that square wooden boards, about three feet 
by three feet, be temporarily placed on the deck. These boards facilitated the 
maneuvers of the company officers, served as positioning guides, and protected 
the parade deck from the cleated shoes that invariably dug up divots in the 
deck's surface. The boards, known now as "Officer Boards," proved successful 
and continue to be used to this day. 

The maintenance team's innovative and cooperative effort contributes 
much to the presence of the parade deck. Colonel Chapman hired the first 
full-time groundskeeper in 1957, and since that time the maintenance of the 
parade deck has become a major program. The parade deck has achieved this 
lush green appearance as a result of its judicious use by marching units. Since 
it was used sparingly in the summer months, it retained its color. Furthermore, 
throughout the winter months and periods of inclement weather, the ceremonial 
units conducted their training in local armories and gymnasium. After the 
summer of 1975, however, most winter and poor weather training was 
conducted at the Barracks. Construction of the new Bachelor Enlisted Quarters 



Interview with Marousek. 



91 



was completed in 1975, and the modern facility contained a two-level, 
underground, indoor parking garage. Thereafter the Marines had convenient 
access to an indoor training except when a battalion size training cycle was 
required. For example, in preparing for the 1977 presidential inaugural parade, 
the Barracks' ceremonial units practiced in the District of Columbia Armory 
and the Fort Myer gymnasium. The care provided by the Yards and Grounds 
Section and marching units have thus become an integral aspect of the parade's 
success. 

Adorning the parade deck at arcade center and the Barracks flagpole 
are historical pieces from various periods of Marine history. To the left of the 
flagpole is a 61mm field piece manufactured in China. It was captured by a 
detachment of United States Marines under the walls of the forbidden City, 
within the Tartar City of Peking, on 15 August 1900. To the right of the 
flagpole is a 57mm Krupp field piece. It was captured from the Chinese by 
Marines near the West Arsenal of Tientsin on 3 July 1900. Both weapons were 
captured by Marines under the command of Major L. W. T. Waller. 

The ship's bell mounted on the flagpole is from the Destroyer USS 
Nicholas (DD449). Commissioned on 4 June 1942, the Nicholas was the second 
warship named in honor of Samuel Nicholas, the first commissioned officer in 
the United States Marine Corps. The Nicholas was retired in January 1970 at 
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The ship's bell was presented to Marine Barracks on 28 
September 1971. 

Prior to the acquisition of the Nicholas ship's bell, one flagpole ship's 
bell was from the World War II Destroyer USS Butler - -named after Major 
General Smedley D. Butler, USMC, two-time Medal of Honor winner. The bell 
was presented to Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., on 20 August 1946. Later, 



92 



the ship's bell was from the USS Gilmer , a World War II Destroyer which had 
supported seven major amphibious operations in the Pacific. The Gilmer was 
named for Thomas Walker Gilmer, a former Governor of Virginia and former 
Secretary of the Navy. The ship's bell from the Gilmer was retired upon the 
presentation of the bell from the Nicholas . 

Lighting 

Professional-quality lighting expertise had not been recognized, at 
least until 1957, as a forte of Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. But guests 
attending the first Evening Parade "marveled at the professional quality of the 
various lighting techniques" of the ceremony. The gradations of light 

intensity, the accuracy and timing of the spotlights, the use of lighting to 
emphasize and focus attention toward specific maneuvers, and lighting per- 
fectly orchestrated with verbal commands and musical cues were coordinated 
to add a dramatic effect to the colorful pageantry of the ceremony. The 
sophisticated lighting sequences were achieved, however, in typical Marine 
fashion — through hard work. 

Initially the technical problems associated with developing the parade 
lighting sequence presented the Barracks Marines with a formidable challenge. 
There is a significant difference between performing a parade in natural 
sunlight and conducting a ceremony in the glare of powerful lights. Marching 
Marines had to become acquainted with and conditioned to the blinding flashes, 
especially units such as the Silent Drill Team, which performed intricate, 
split-second maneuvers that could be potentially dangerous if its members were 
temporarily distracted by blinding lights. To gain the necessary experience for 



Ruth Dean, "Moonlight Parades Are an Innovation," Washington 
Star, 8 June 1958, sec. D, p. 5. 



93 



the ceremonial units and the lighting crews, Colonel Chapman explained, "We 

began rehearsing months ahead of time, working after dark and taking one troop 

102 
at a time, then all together." 

Although from the first performance the lighting effort had all the 

appearances of a professionally sponsored program, the Eighth and Eye lighting 

team had no such professional assistance. Such was not the case then nor is it 

now. Traditionally, the Marine Corps achieves maximum results from minimal 

budgets and equipment. The initial Barracks lighting project was no exception. 

Metal stanchions were rented for the placement of the lights, floodlights and 

spotlights were borrowed from the Marine Corps East Coast Motion Picture 

Unit at Quantico, trenches were dug to bury the cables that ran the length of 

the parade deck, and the system was coordinated through a communications 

103 
network that employed a simple Marine EE-8 combat field telephone. 

Marine electricians installed the electric circuits, but beyond that the lighting 
program was planned and manned by Marines unskilled in lighting techniques. 
But the initial lack of experience was remedied by countless hours of pain- 
staking practice. 

Major C. H. Schmid, the Barracks Supply Officer, was tasked by 
Colonel Chapman with developing a lighting system for the Evening Parade. 
Colonel Chapman acknowledged that neither he nor Major Schmid knew 

anything about lighting, but that such inexperience was insufficient reason not 

104 
to try; they "just went out and bought some lights and started right in." 

Although the Marines at the Barracks had no expertise with lighting, they did 



102 .Md. 

103 

Interview with Marousek. 

104 

Dean, "Moonlight Parades," sec. D, p. 5. 



94 



have ideas and patience. Thus, through a tedious system of experimentation 
and trial and error, the Marines proceeded to create a detailed lighting 
program. The lighting project, according to Colonel Chapman, was the 
culmination of "my Marines, with military occupational specialties as diverse as 
infantry, carpenters, metal workers, and mechanics, contributing their time and 
developing talents to a heretofore alien specialty." 

In the early years the lighting cues were relayed by field telephones to 
the respective light towers on the north and south ends of the parade deck. The 
lighting crews also experimented with red and green filters for the spotlights. 
The filters were eventually eliminated, and today all lighting is conducted 
without colored filters. Over the years the lighting format has also become 
more sophisticated and has evolved into a formal script. In the era of Colonel 
Charles G. Cooper, the Commanding Officer at the Barracks in the early 1970s, 
the Commandant's Home's interior lights were turned on to add to the 
impressiveness of the mansion overlooking the parade deck. Colonel Cooper 
also directed that the field lights be dimmed during the march on and that 
spotlights focus on the emerging companies to dramatize their entrance. 
Then in 1977 a modification in the appearance sequence of the Drum and Bugle 
Corps was accompanied by near total darkness as the field lights were 
extinguished and only spotlights were used to highlight the appearance of the 
drums and bugles from the darkened arcade. 

In preparation for the 1979 parade season, the Barracks' Ceremonies 
Manual was rewritten to reflect recent modifications to the various ceremonies 



Interview with Chapman. 

Interview with Charles G. Cooper, Major General, USMC, 
Washington, D.C., 9 August 1977. 



95 



performed by Barracks" units. One of the major efforts in the manual's revision 
was the development of an exact lighting script to accompany the sequence of 
events for the Evening Parade. Previously only partial or informal scripts had 
existed, and no complete lighting program had ever been included in the 
manual. Under the supervision of Master Sergeant Ankron, members of the 
lighting crew designed a script that detailed every cue for every light on the 
parade deck. This was a demanding and complicated task because of the 
numerous types of lights and their respective functions: field lights, adjutant 
spot, center bank, staff spot, flag spot, back-up lights, rampart lights, north 
and south spotlights, officer spot, personal flag spot, and special 'Taps" spot. 
Further (to illustrate the complexity of the lighting requirements), certain of 
the lights are turned on at a specific clock time, others are cued by oral 
telephonic commands, some are cued by a specific musical note or pre-desig- 
nated word on a taped announcement, and still other lights are signaled by a 
certain maneuver on the parade deck. In addition, selected lights are stationary 
while others focus and track movement on the parade deck; and certain lights 
have only one level of brightness while others require gradations in intensity 
throughout the ceremony. 

Lighting had always been an essential element in the success of the 
Evening Parade, but the inclusion of a detailed lighting script in the Ceremonies 
Manual further signified its value. To illustrate the precise description and 
instructions for the use of lights in the ceremony, a brief excerpt from the 
manual follows: 

BAND CONCERT . 

LIGHTING . Field Lights 

a. Half bright at 2015 and through concert. 



96 



b. Center bank full bright as Director steps on 

podium. 

Adjutant Spot . Remains off. 

Staff Spot 

a. On at 2015. 

b. Cut as spots hit Director. 

Flag Spot . On at sunset and on until first note of the 
National Anthem during the color lowering. 
Back-Up Lights . On as Band ordered out. 
Rampart Lights . On as Band ordered out. 
North and South Spots 

a. As the Director halts, four paces in front of the 
reviewing area, the spots converge on him and simul- 
taneously the staff spot is cut. 

b. The north and south spots track the Director to 
the podium and cut as he steps onto the podium. 
Officers Spot . As the Director steps onto the podium 
the officer spot is turned on and simultaneously the 
north and south spots cut. 

This is an example of the lighting script and accompanying detailed instruction 
for the first sequence of events in the ceremony. There are twenty-four major 
events in the parade and numerous ancillary sequences, each of which has 
similar detailed lighting requirements. Thus, a lighting program that began in 
1957 by experimentation and trial and error has in today's Evening Parade 
become a formal and elaborate system to guide the lighting crew through the 



Ceremonies Manual , sec. 2, pp. 5-6. 



97 



numerous and intricate lighting sequences. 

One lighting modification added to the manual for the 1980 parade 
season involved the "Taps" sequence. Previously the bugler atop the ramparts 
was illuminated by a single level of brightness. With the addition of a control 
switch, however, the light would then fade from full bright to total darkness, so 
as to coincide with the final notes of "Taps" as they faded across the parade 
deck. This modification illustrates the attention to detail that consistently 
contributes to the total effect of the ceremony. 

Hosting 

One of the most important and influential missions of the Barracks* 
Marines is that of serving as hosts and escorts to the many guests who visit the 
Eighth and Eye ceremonies. The fundamental philosophy of the Barracks 
toward the many people who view the parade is that no one is a "visitor" — 
everyone is an honored "guest." Marines at the Barracks realize that parades 
and ceremonies may be rehearsed until they approach perfection, but "hosting is 

a fluid activity which is dependent on a number of factors that are neither 

108 
predictable nor susceptible to rehearsal." 

Marines at the Barracks receive instruction which emphasizes that 

although a ceremony may well have been the epitome of military precision and 

accuracy, a single careless negative gesture or word on the part of a host can 

adversely color the impressions a guest carries with him on his departure. 

Because guests rarely have the opportunity to meet or associate with the 

Marines who march in the ceremonies, their impressions of Marines and the 

parade may be based solely on their personal contact with a host. Therefore 



1 08 

"Hosting" (Washington, D.C.: Marine Barracks Order 5060.43 A, 

18 April 1977), cover sheet. 



98 



over the years the commanding officers at the Post have emphasized that every 
escorting Marine must "understand the significance of fundamental courtesy 
and the willingness to extend that extra effort to every guest," regardless of his 

I no 

or her rank or personal status in life. It is important to the Barracks that 

every guest be treated with utmost politeness and respect, as this impression is 
often as lasting and as meaningful to the guests as the parade itself. Through 
this concept of "hosting" as opposed to "ushering," each guest of the Barracks 
meets an articulate, friendly Marine whose image balances and mirrors the 
taut, silent respect of the actual ceremony. 

Hosting guidelines are published in a Barracks order that includes 
specific instructions on the organization of the hosting detail and their 
individual responsibilities. The order explains that each Marine's appearance 
and demeanor will be absolutely impeccable. To achieve these demanding 
standards, hosting team briefings and inspections are conducted prior to every 
ceremony. Approximately three thousand guests attend each Evening Parade. 
Attendance at the parade is by reservation, but no tickets are actually issued. 
Guests are simply assigned by name to a certain roster and instructed to report 
to one of nine gates on Eighth Street. It is through these gates, which open at 
1930, that guests are greeted by a host and then escorted to their assigned 
section. The task quite simply is to insure that guests are properly identified, 
issued programs, and personally escorted to their seats. Accomplishing this 
task often requires unfailing patience, tact, and courtesy. 

The Commandant of the Marine Corps personally invites the reviewing 
official and honored group for every Evening Parade. Invitations are extended 
to such selected individuals and groups as the President of the United States, 



109 Ibid., p. 1. 



99 



senior cabinet officials, members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, chairmen and 
members of various congressional committees, and military and government 
officials of general officer status. The significant majority of the guests, 
however, are military and civilian individuals and groups from throughout the 
United States and abroad. The parade is open to the general public and 
reservations are obtained by writing or telephoning the Barracks Adjutant, or by 
reporting to the general admission section on parade night for any available, 
though limited seating. At any single parade the guests may be from as far 
away as Australia or Europe, or as close as the local neighborhood. 

Although the hosting duties of Marines stationed at the Barracks have 
evolved into a formal and structured set of guidelines, such has not always been 
the case. Jonas M. Piatt, later to become a major general, recalled the 
impromptu manner in which, as a young officer in 1953, he was invited to serve 
as an escort at a Sunset Parade at the Barracks. The Commandant, General 
Shepherd, had asked that six Marines come to the Post and be escorts for one 
evening. General Piatt later recalled it as a pleasant experience and one of his 
best memories "because after the parade the Commandant invited the 
temporary aides to have dinner with him in the Commandant's Home." 

It was during this time when the Barracks was experimenting with a 
system of escorting guests that General Shepherd also introduced the question 
of a dress code for the public. Colonel Berkeley, the Barracks Commanding 
Officer at the time, explained that General Shepherd had noticed spectators in 
sports shirts and inquired as to whether Colonel Berkeley could refuse admit- 
tance to those improperly dressed. Colonel Berkeley's answer was that "in that 
we had opened to the public there was not much that I could do about the 



11 interview with Piatt. 



100 



matter." The answer failed to totally satisfy the Commandant because "he 
would mutter over this every now and then." This continued until one hot 
summer Friday, when a man in a dirty sports shirt and a five o'clock shadow 
came up to General Shepherd and said, "Lem, that was a fine parade." The man 
was one of the Commandant's personal guests, the Dean of the Diplomatic 
Corps, the Norwegian Ambassador. After that, Colonel Berkeley concluded, "I 
heard no more of the subject" of a dress code from General Shepherd. To 

this day there exists no mandatory dress code for the Evening Parade's guests. 

Today every individual is treated as an honored guest at Barracks 
ceremonies. It is this respect that typifies the courtesy extended to every 
individual who visits the Post. The Barracks receives numerous letters each 
year praising the ceremony, and invariably the writers' appreciation for the 
personal and respectful attention they received from the hosts and escorts is 
mentioned. Representative of these impressions is the comment from a lady 
guest from California in August 1981: "The band concert and parade were truly 
impressive and inspiring. But from the moment I was politely and courteously 

escorted to my seat I knew my Marine experience would be a memorable 

112 
evening." 

Guest Seating 

Seating for guests of the Barracks' Sunset Parades from 1934 to 1956 
was a relatively minor problem. The crowd averaged less than three hundred 
guests per parade, and most spectators simply stood along the west sidewalk 
under the shade of the line of oak trees. For the honored guests and those who 



Berkeley letter. 

112 

Interview with Diane Allen, Guest at Evening Parade, Washington, 



D.C., 21 August 1981. 



101 



chose to sit, the Barracks provided folding chairs. Colonel Berkeley recalled 
that the chairs were stored in the basement of his quarters and were "a bother 
to all concerned." Yet this rather informal and minor requirement became a 
major task with the first evening performance. 

With the introduction of the Evening Parade in 1957 and the signifi- 
cant increase in attendance, bleachers were required to seat the thousands of 
guests. In 1957 wooden bleachers were rented from a local business and 
installed each Thursday or Friday morning, and taken down each Saturday. The 
task of installation and breakdown on a weekly basis for the four-month parade 
season became costly and time-consuming. Thus in the early 1960s the 
Barracks supply officer purchased semi-permanent bleachers for the Barracks. 
The wooden bleachers were installed in late April of each year prior to the start 
of the parade season. They remained in place until late September after the 
final parade of the year. 

Aligned the length of the parade deck west, the seating included three 
sections north of center walk and three sections south of center walk. There 
was also one large section at the south end of the parade deck. Although the 
sections varied in size, each section was basically the backless, wooden-seat 
type. One exception was the section immediately north of center walk, which 
was reserved for the reviewing official and the honored group. This section had 
padded seats and back rests. This seating arrangement continued for many 
years. In 1977 padded seating was added to a portion of the section 
immediately south of center walk. Then, prior to the 1981 parade season, both 
sections closest to center walk were equipped with plastic seats and backs. 
This is the seating that continues into the twenty -fifth year. 



Berkeley letter. 



102 



Inclement Weather Conditions 

Evening Parades at the Barracks are reluctantly cancelled. However, 
during periods of inclement weather it may be necessary to do so. The Eighth 
and Eye commanding officers hesitate to cancel parades because they know 
that many guests have traveled long distances to view the performance, that 
reviewing officials have been selected with care, and that all practices have 
been completed. Consequently, commanding officers now delay until the latest 
possible moment any decision to cancel the parade. Yet, because formal 
procedures for cancelling parades were not established prior to 1978 and 
because premature decisions were sometimes made, the Barracks now has a 
written regulation that governs the cancellation of ceremonies. 

In the early days of the Sunset Parade Colonel Berkeley recalled that 
he and the Commandant's wife, Mrs. Shepherd, "always consulted the Hagers- 
town Almanac" prior to scheduling an important parade, especially one that 
included a garden party by Mrs. Shepherd. Colonel Berkeley remembered that 
he "never lost a parade due to weather and I recall Mrs. Shepherd lost only one 
garden party." 

Colonel Piatt was not as fortunate during his stint as the commanding 
officer at the Barracks. Although Colonel Piatt was forced to cancel several 
parades because of foul weather, none was as eventful as an occasion in 1959. 
A special ceremony was scheduled to be performed in honor of the Sixth Marine 
Division Association reunion in Washington, D.C. The weather forecast was 
unfavorable, and in fact Colonel Piatt later recalled that it rained most of the 
afternoon. Anticipating continued poor weather, Colonel Piatt reserved the 
District of Columbia Armory as an alternate site for the parade. That 



Ibid. 



103 



afternoon about 1700 Colonel Piatt made the decision to perform the ceremony 
in the armory. But as fate would have it, about 1800 that day the sun broke 
through the disappearing clouds, and it was a beautiful evening. The earlier 
decision, however, had set in motion all the support requirements that made it 
impossible to alter the site again. Thus Colonel Piatt remembered the "mood of 
the crowd as extremely hostile." Anticipating the parade at the historic site of 
the Barracks and with a perfect night for the occasion, "the crowd was rather 
antagonistic." Although he survived the ordeal, Colonel Piatt claimed he 
learned never again to cancel or alter a ceremony site until the last possible 
moment. 

A similar incident occurred to Colonel Charles G. Cooper, the 
Barracks' Commanding Officer in the early 1970s. Colonel Cooper acknowl- 
edged that he cancelled a parade about 1930 because of rain and that later that 
evening, about 20^5, the moon appeared and it was a perfect summer night. 
Colonel Cooper recalled that as the moon appeared he regretted having 
cancelled the parade. He added that his regret became more pronounced when 
later the Commandant's wife, Mrs. Cushman, remarked during a stroll outdoors, 
"I wish you would have waited a little longer before cancelling the parade." 

Colonel Cooper claimed that he never again cancelled a parade prior to 

116 
2100--the last possible second before the scheduled start time. 

Thus over the years there has developed a conscious attempt to 

perform every scheduled parade if possible. Authorities consulted may have 

varied from the almanac to the intuition, but each succeeding commanding 

officer recognized the need to avoid any early cancellations of ceremonies. 



Interview with Piatt. 
Interview with Cooper. 



104 



Over the years an informal system of obtaining information and recommenda- 
tions became more formalized. In 1978 the Barracks Commanding Officer, 
Colonel 3. P. Monahan, published an order that prescribed the requirements and 
responsibilities of unit commanders and staff officers in inclement weather 
conditions. The order outlines an established procedure for altering preliminary 
sequences of the band concert and various actions to be taken prior to the 
commencement of the parade at 2100. The regulations in the order have helped 
to preserve ceremonies that might have otherwise been cancelled in previous 
years. 

Once the parade begins and inclement weather then appears, however, 
there may be no alternative but to terminate the ceremony. For this situation 
the Barracks Ceremonies Manual includes "emergency march-off" procedures to 
insure the orderly conclusion of the parade and the safe exit of all guests. Once 
the commanding officer decides to conclude the parade, the operations section 
will cause an announcement to be read over the public address system that 
notifies all guests of the cancellation of the parade. With no interruption to the 
ceremony and in the absence of any further commands, this announcement is 
the parade commander's signal to conduct the emergency march-off. The 
parade commander will simply insure that the battalion is at attention and give 
the appropriate commands for the march-off. 

Periodically, during Phase I and II rehearsals, the emergency march- 
off drill will be executed on an unannounced basis to insure that every Marine is 
familiar with the sequence in the event that such an exit is required because of 
emergency conditions. Thus, even to cancel a parade in a thunderstorm, orderly 
procedures have been established to insure that the ceremonial units depart the 
parade deck in a professional manner. 



105 



Supernumerary Actions 

Barracks orders require that unit commanders insure that supernumer- 
aries are positioned in the arcade, prepared to respond to any unplanned 
incident on the parade deck. This may involve infrequently replacing an ill 
Marine or retrieving an item of equipment that has been dropped or broken. In 
most cases these actions are accomplished with such stealth that the audience 
is unaware of the action taken to correct an unplanned event. 

Probably the most challenging requirement is to replace a Marine who 
has become ill during the ceremony, especially if the illness is without warning. 
But even this may be accomplished in an inconspicuous manner. Although it is 
extremely important that every Marine prepare himself mentally and physically 
for ceremonies, illness is at times unavoidable, especially during periods of 
excessive heat or cold. In these situations it is paramount that the corrective 
action taken provide minimal distraction to the ceremony. The order states 
that "It may at times be more advantageous to correct a potentially major 
distraction, removing a gradually ill Marine at a time when a choice is 
available, than permitting the Marine to faint and then have to react regardless 
of the parade sequence." Consequently, supernumeraries are prepared by 

established and rehearsed procedures to replace a Marine who has become 
either suddenly or gradually ill. 

Company commanders also initiate training programs to insure that 
supernumeraries ceremonially retrieve any equipment that is dropped on the 
parade deck. This includes rifles, bayonets, covers, belts, or other essential 
accessories. By employing a system of unspoken visual signals, the concerned 
Marine may request assistance from the supernumerary. If the equipment 



Ceremonies Manual , sec. 2, p. 30. 



106 



failure occurs on troop walk, the supernumerary will as inconspicuously as 
possible retrieve the item and return it to the owner or replace it. 

The Barracks Ceremonies Manual specifies eight separate sequences in 
the parade during which equipment may or may not be retrieved. Prior to the 
recovery of any item, or the replacement of a gradually ill Marine, however, 
the supernumerary will report the situation to the operations section controlling 
the parade. He will then proceed only with the approval of the ceremony's 
director. The recovery of any piece of equipment is timed to coincide with an 
event which causes the audience to direct their attention elsewhere. Thus with 
an action taking place on the south end of the parade deck, a supernumerary is 
authorized to retrieve an item on the north end of the parade deck. This 
recovery may also be accomplished during periods of total or near darkness. 

Recovery of equipment dropped or broken on troop walk is relatively 
standard. The exceptions to the recovery rules occur most often on the parade 
deck itself. Thus, if an item is dropped or broken in a location where unnoticed 
recovery is impossible, and the equipment is not needed for a later sequence, 
the item will simply remain unrecovered. Furthermore, if a performing unit 
such as the Silent Drill Team or Drum and Bugle Corps loses an item of 
equipment they are authorized to make a decision on the recovery or nonre- 
covery of the item. 

In many instances Marines retrieving or replacing equipment become 
so adept, and their actions executed with such ceremonial proficiency, that the 
audience believes it is a planned maneuver. For instance, because of the 
requirement to execute rifle movements with such rugged precision and speed 
and in such close proximity to one another, members of the Silent Drill Team 
may occasionally have a cover (hat) knocked off by a spinning rifle. The 



107 



sequence will continue uninterrupted; however, at the appropriate time the 
Drill Team Inspector will ceremonially retrieve and replace the cover. With the 
utmost of decorum, the inspector will retrieve the cover, smartly proceed to a 
position directly behind the uncovered Marine, slowly raise the cover about 
twelve inches above the Marine's head, pause momentarily, and then with 
blinding speed snap the cover onto the Marine's head. The cover is replaced 
with such force that the audience is confident that the cover will probably 
never be removed. Regardless of the comical nature of this act as perceived by 
the audience, the episode is conducted with such seriousness and such a flair for 
showmanship that the audience is convinced it was a planned sequence. An Air 
Force colonel observed this happening in an August 1981 parade and was 
positive that the loss and recovery of the cover was planned. He acknowledged 

that "the replacement of the cover was so efficiently and effectively done that 

1 18 
it had to have been planned." But the answer is an unequivocal no. No 

mistake is ever planned or purposely executed during the parade. The 

ceremonial units are, however, prepared to respond to almost any unplanned 

event and inconspicuously or decorously correct the situation. 

As the Evening Parade is a synthesis of the many features of historical 

and contemporary ceremonies, so too is it representative of the talents and 

dedications of the many Marines at the Barracks. Within the Evening Parade no 

particular duty, no individual Marine, is more important than any other. 

Marines and their missions are of equal significance to the parade. Certain 

ceremonial duties may appear more prestigious than the support tasks; however, 

the success of the ceremony is dependent upon the professional contributions of 



1 18 

Interview with Lloyd H. Barton, Guest at Evening Parade, 

Washington, D.C., 21 August 1981. 



108 



every Marine at the Corps' oldest Post. 

The Evening Parade has created numerous innovations to ceremonies 
at the Barracks and has contributed to the garrison's status as the focal point of 
the Corps. Although there have been modifications at the Barracks in the past 
two centuries, the Barracks in Washington stands as a symbol of Marine Corps 
history and tradition. The Barracks has experienced some changes over the 
years, yet it has retained its essential values. Thus two distinct characteristics 
envelop life at Eighth and Eye. As Colonel Paul G. Graham, a former 

Commanding Officer at the Barracks, once noted, " 'Old Corps' tradition and 

119 
standard are enshrined alongside 'New Corps' ingenuity." 



p. 22. 



119 Quoted in Julius V. Brown, "Oldest Post," Leatherneck , July 1969, 



CHAPTER VI 
BARRACKS CEREMONIAL REQUESTS AND TRAINING 

Requests for Ceremonies 

The Barracks receives its tasking directions for various ceremonies 
from four separate sources: the Military District of Washington, the Naval 
District of Washington, the White House, and Headquarters Marine Corps. The 
Military District of Washington coordinates all joint service ceremonies in the 
capital region on behalf of the Secretary of Defense. The Naval District of 
Washington coordinates only those ceremonies involving Marines and Navy 
personnel. On occasion the White House will submit support requests directly 
to the Barracks, and such tasks are normally coordinated with the White House 
military office. 

The nature and priority of the requests from the Military and Naval 
Districts of Washington and the White House dictate that requests received 
from these sources be considered mandatory and performed as requested. 
Although the basic statistics will vary, according to the current Barracks 
Operations Officer, Terrence P. Murray, "approximately ten percent of the 
Barracks requests for ceremonial commitments are generated by the White 

House, ten percent by the Naval District of Washington, and forty percent by 

120 
the Military District of Washington." 

The remaining 40 percent of the Barracks' ceremonial requirements 

are directed by Headquarters Marine Corps. Whereas the requests from the 



120 

Interview with Terrence P. Murray, Major, USMC, Washington, 

D.C., 30 December 1981. 

109 



110 



other three sources are normally considered mandatory, the requests from 
Headquarters Marine Corps may be negotiated. Thus the Barracks commanding 
officer may approve or disapprove certain requests on the basis of the training 
and ceremonial requirements of the Barracks. The accepted policy at the 
Barracks, as approved by Headquarters Marine Corps, is to maintain ceremonial 
commitment flexibility and to avoid long-term or regular performance sched- 
ules which are external to Marine Corps ceremonies. The demanding schedule 
of the Barracks' ceremonial units and the mandatory nature of certain requests 
from priority sources require the Barracks to exercise judicious selectivity in 
assigning or accepting commitment requests. 

The Barracks is unable to accept all of the requests it receives for 
ceremonies because limited manpower and time preclude a favorable reply to 
the over two hundred requests it receives each month. Consequently, according 
to Colonel 3. P, Monahan, the Barracks commanding officer in 1978, "the 
Barracks has continually endorsed the policy of accepting performance requests 

by responding to commitments based on the best interests of the Marine 

121 
Corps." The current standard procedure in developing the annual commit- 

ment schedule, according to Major Murray, is to "consider about one-half of the 

schedule 'fixed' or conducted on a traditional basis, and the other one-half as 

122 
conducted on an availability basis." Consequently, once the Barracks 

establishes the schedule for the commitments which are routinely and regularly 

performed by the Barracks ceremonial units, the remainder of the ceremonial 

calendar is completed by acknowledging requests in the order in which they are 

received. As Colonel Monahan elaborated, "The Barracks has never prejudiced 



121 

Interview with 3ohn P. Monahan, Colonel, USMC, Washington, 



D.C., 10 3une 1979. 
122 



Interview with Murray. 



Ill 



the Marine Corps by responding to commitments founded on overtures from 

123 
partisanship, power, or privilege." Thus, excepting the traditional commit- 

ments, the Barracks accepts requests on a "first-come, first-served" basis. 

Major L. A. Marousek, the Barracks operations officer and ceremonies 

coordinator in the transition years of 1956 to 1958, estimated that the Barracks 

124 
performed "less than fifty ceremonies per month in those years." Yet with 

the advent of the Evening Parade in 1957 and the subsequent enhancement of 

the ceremonial reputation of the Barracks Marines, ceremonies became an 

ever-increasing aspect of the daily routine at the Barracks. Probably the most 

influential event to increase the ceremonial requests and commitments at the 

Barracks was the American Bicentennial in 1976. The Barracks operations 

officer, who coordinated Eighth and Eye ceremonies during the observance of 

the nation's two-hundredth anniversary, was Major Henry W. Buse, III. Major 

Buse observed that in the early 1970s the Barracks ceremonial units "averaged 

about seventy-five ceremonies per month. But that in 1976 that total increased 

125 
to about 120 per month." The patriotic fervor inspired by the bicentennial 

established a precedent that has continued to the present. Major Murray, the 

current Barracks operations officer, commented that in 1981 the Barracks units 

"performed on the average, over 100 ceremonies per month, and that during the 

parade season and summer months the total averages almost 150 ceremonies 

per month." 



123 

Interview with Monahan. 

124 

Interview with L. A. Marousek, Colonel, USMC, Washington, 

D.C., 12 August 1978. 

125 

Interview with Henry W. Buse, Major, USMC, Washington, D.C., 

4 December 1976. 

126 

Interview with Murray. 



112 



Although the ceremonies may vary in terms of size or prestige, 
exacting rehearsal schedules and training programs accompany every Barracks 
ceremonial commitment. The ceremonial performance may range from the 
requirement for a lone bugler to sound "To the Color" at a local elementary 
school flag-raising ceremony or to play 'Taps" at a funeral; to a Battle Color 
Ceremony of about one hundred Marines for performing a patriotic parade in 
Canada or Texas; to a presidential inauguration in the nation's capital which 
may require about eight hundred Marines. Yet regardless of the size of the 
ceremony or the prominence of the audience, each ceremony is performed with 
pride and dedication. 

The standard of perfection that has evolved over the years continues 
to the present. "Our aim," Colonel Robert H. Williams, commanding officer of 

the Barracks in 1955, commented, "is to be a model of military appearance and 

127 
courtesy for the rest of the Marine Corps." With that thought applied more 

directly to Barracks ceremonies, Colonel Chapman, in 1957 and subsequent 

years, often maintained that the only permissible goal was perfection in every 

ceremony. The current commanding officer at the Barracks, Colonel O. K. 

Steele, agrees that there has been "no deviation from the ultimate goal of 

128 
perfection." Achieving this simply stated objective, however, is an excep- 

tionally challenging task that requires ceaseless dedication and perseverance by 
every Marine at the Barracks. The rigorous ceremonial training schedule 
instituted at the Barracks is designed to prepare the Barracks Marines to 
perform with the excellence traditionally associated with the Barracks. 



127 

Quoted in Suhosky, "Eighth and Eye," p. 18. 

128 

Interview with O. K. Steele, Colonel, USMC, Washington, D.C., 

5 May 1981. 



113 



Although the focus of this thesis is the Evening Parade conducted at 
the Barracks, the ceremony performed every Friday throughout the parade 
season is only one of a variety of ceremonies in which Barracks Marines 
participate. A companion ceremony of the weekly Friday parade is the Sunset 
Parade performed each Tuesday, June through August, at the Marine Corps War 
Memorial (Iwo Jima statue) at Arlington National Cemetery. The two parades 
differ in terms of setting and location, duration of the parade season and time 
of ceremony, and sequence of events. Thus, although two separate and distinct 
parades, the two ceremonies in combination dominate the Barracks' parade 
season activities. 

Although the Evening Parade at the Barracks is now recognized as the 
focal point of the Barracks ceremonies, the Sunset Parade has a special 
significance to the Marines at the Barracks. In contrast to the traditional 
architecture of the Eighth and Eye Barracks, the Marine Corps War Memorial, 
located on a commanding hillside adjacent to the hallowed grounds of Arlington 
National Cememtery, offers a spectacular panoramic view of the nation's 
capital. The Sunset Parade incorporates many of the popular features of the 
Evening Parade; however, because of the unique characteristics of the parade 
grounds and the significance of the historic Iwo Jima statue, the concluding 
memorial tribute of "Volleys and Taps" contributes significantly to the patriotic 
spirit of the parade. 

The Evening and Sunset Parades are thus undoubtedly the two best- 
known ceremonies performed by the Marines at the Barracks. The two parades, 
however, represent less than ten percent of the ceremonial commitments 
executed by the Post's Marines. Equally important are the numerous joint 
service ceremonies performed for visiting Heads of State and other dignitaries 



11* 



during Armed Forces Full Honors Arrivals, Departures, and Wreath Ceremonies 
at the White House, Pentagon, and Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National 
Cemetery. 

Ceremonial and Skills Training 

Performing the infinite variety and types of ceremonies the Barracks 
is requested to conduct, plus executing the security missions, necessitates an 
extensive and demanding ceremonial training program. Requests for cere- 
monial support may vary from that of an individual Marine to that of virtually 
the entire command. Yet despite the essential nature of ceremonial training at 
the Barracks, the Barracks training program maintains an aggressive commit- 
ment to other phases of training. Thus ceremonial training is emphasized at 
every opportunity; however, the Barracks also promotes and conducts an 
extensive military skills training program. The syllabus for such skills training 
is aimed at two distinct objectives: first, preparing the individual Marine for 
the ultimate mission of combat under the "every Marine is a rifleman" 
philosophy; second^ developing unit training programs to accomplish the classi- 
fied contingency missions associated with the United States Capitol Building 
and the White House. Fully integrating the contingency security mission 
training with the ceremonial training requirements is a complicated process. 
Yet accomplishing the majority of the security mission in the ceremonial "off 
season"- -normally January, February and October- -precludes any direct 
training interferences or adverse impacts on either training program. 

Although the two security missions may differ in their final objectives, 
the basic training requirements are similar. The Barracks Marines participate 
in civil disturbance exercises, general military subjects classes, heliborne 
operations, rifle and pistol qualification, gas chamber drills, and leadership 



115 



programs. In addition, the Marines conduct field training at Quantico, Virginia, 
and Fort Meade, Maryland, to enhance their skills in the stamina course, circuit 
course, speed march reaction course, and small unit tactics. As ceremonial 
commitments permit, Barracks Marines have in the past conducted cold 
weather training in New York and Montana, as well as reconnaissance field 
training in North Carolina. 

Although the significance of the Capitol and White House security 
mission training is acknowledged, it is ceremonial training that dominates the 
daily activities of the Barracks. A delicate balance between ceremonial and 
security mission training is maintained throughout the year. The Barracks 1 
commanding officer from 1975 to 1978, Colonel Wesley H. Rice, acknowledged, 

however, that "representing the Marine Corps to millions of people each year 

129 
dictates that ceremonial training receives the highest priority." Establishing 

and maintaining an effectively balanced and productive training program 

requires constant attention at the Barracks. This balance is best understood 

and appreciated through a review of the complex and continuous parade training 

schedule that is needed to achieve the ceremonial proficiency for which the 

Barracks is known. 

A Monthly Training Program Review 

In January of each year two important ceremonial training programs 

are initiated. First, the two ceremonial companies, Company A and Company 

B, begin individual and small unit training. The two companies conduct 

ceremonial schools for the new Marines who have recently joined their 

commands and begin squad-level drill for the remainder of the Marines. Those 

Marines who have reported to the Barracks for duty since the conclusion of the 



129 

Interview with Wesley H. Rice, Colonel, USMC, Washington, 



D.C., 12 April 1977. 



116 



preceding parade season will receive basic close order drill classes with 
particular emphasis on the manual of arms, proper marching techniques, 
personal appearance and posture standards, and standing at attention for 
prolonged periods of time. The requirement to stand at attention may at first 
appear relatively simple or mundane. Yet, considering that the maneuver must 
often be performed for time periods in excess of one hour and executed without 
the visible movement of a single muscle, one begins to realize the necessity for 
such training. When this task is compounded by the extremes of freezing 
temperatures or the heat of a sunny summer afternoon, such training becomes 
even more demanding. 

Gunnery Sergeant L. R. Long, a platoon sergeant in a marching 
company and later operations chief at the Barracks from 1974 to 1977, 
explained that the attention drill would normally conclude the daily ceremonial 
training program for new members of the platoons. He commented that 
"Marines would begin by standing at attention for ten minutes duration and, in a 
progressive manner, by the end of the training cycle they would stand at 
attention for over one hour at a time." Although a basic requirement, the 

extensive attention drill symbolizes the ceremonial proficiency demands and 
provides Marines with the physical and psychological confidence so critical to 
the success of every performance. 

Captain Robert M. Biddle, the Commanding Officer of Company A in 
1978, acknowledged that "the hours are long and tedious, but the formal 
instruction periods represent only the tip of the iceberg." Thus what is lectured 
on in the classroom and executed during periods of practical application 
requires many more hours of dedicated individual practice sessions. Captain 



130 

Interview with L. R. Long, Gunnery Sergeant, USMC, Washington, 

D.C., 21 May 1977. 



117 

Biddle concluded by stating that "the Marines become familiar with demanding 
work days as their weapons become an integral part of them — and extension of 
their physical being." 

The second major training program which begins in January is officer 
and staff noncommissioned officer training. Normally, all officers and staff 
noncommissioned officers new to the Post participate in a three-week training 
program to acquaint them with the unique drill procedures of the ceremonies at 
the Barracks. The classes also prepare them for the parade staff tryouts which 
are usually conducted during the final week of February. 

Platoon level drill, the conclusion of the officers and staff noncommis- 
sioned officer training and subsequent parade staff tryouts, and a special 
three-week training trip for the Silent Drill Team, Marine Drum and Bugle 
Corps, and Marine Color Guard in Yuma, Arizona, highlight the February 
training program for Barracks units. 

The ceremonial companies, in their progressive training programs, 
initiate platoon level close order drill classes in February. Captain David G. 
Titus, the Company A Commanding Officer in 1979, commented that in 
February the training begins to emphasize "uniformity in the timing and 
execution of the various drill maneuvers. Standardization and teamwork 

combined with precision become the primary objectives of the platoon work- 

* ,,132 
outs." 

Meanwhile, the parade staff aspirants continue their preparation for 

the parade tryouts held in the final week of the month. The Evening and Sunset 

Parades have two five-man staffs (Parade Commander, Adjutant, Flanking 



131 

Interview with Robert M. Biddle, Captain, USMC, Washington, 

D.C., k October 1978. 

132 

Interview with David G. Titus, Captain, USMC, Washington, D.C., 

10 December 1979. 



118 



Officer, and two Staff Noncommissioned Officers). Although only one parade 
staff marches per parade, the two staffs alternate the respective ceremony 
commitments at the Barracks and serve as a back-up to each other in the event 
of an emergency or dual commitments. Upon the inception of the Evening 

Parade in 1957, according to Colonel Marousek, "one parade staff would march 

133 
in all ceremonies for one month and then be relieved by the second staff." 

Over the years the Barracks ceremonies coordinators have experimented with 

having as few as one or as many as three parade staffs, and in rotating the staff 

with varying degrees of frequency. At present, however, Major Murray 

commented that the "two parade staffs are rotated on an every other week 

134 
basis" and that such has been the procedure for over ten years. In any 

event, the parade staff positions are achieved through highly competitive 

annual tryouts. A published Barracks bulletin prescribes the instructions and 

regulations for the parade staff tryouts. The Barracks Commanding Officer, 

with his appropriate staff, will select the best qualified Marines for the 

respective parade staff marching billets. 

One other significant training evolution of the February schedule is 

the intensive ceremonial training program of the Battle Color Detachment. 

The Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., Battle Color Ceremony displays the 

unique capabilities of the Marine Drum and Bugle Corps, the Silent Drill Team, 

and the Marine Corps Color Guard. The ceremony is approximately forty 

minutes long and acquaints the audiences with the traditions symbolized by the 

Battle Color of the Marine Corps. Although these units are an integral and 

featured part of the Evening and Sunset Parades, they may be detached to 



133 

Interview with Marousek. 

134 

Interview with Murray. 



119 



perform separate ceremonies on behalf of the Barracks and the Marine Corps. 
Whereas the Evening and Sunset Parades are infrequently performed at sites 
other than the Eighth and Eye Barracks and the Marine Corps War Memorial 
(and only then on exceptional occasions), the Battle Color Ceremony constitutes 
the primary means by which representative ceremonial forces of the Barracks 
can travel throughout the United States and abroad. In preparing for the 
Barracks' two parades, plus the Battle Color Ceremony, the training trip is 
considered essential to the musical and ceremonial proficiency of the respec- 
tive units. 

Captain Truman W. Crawford, the Leader of the Marine and Drum and 
Bugle Corps since 1967, stated that "the use of a training site away from the 
Barracks is an effective means for isolating the units and provides the Battle 

Color Detachment the opportunity to engage in an unrestricted and uninter- 

135 
fered with rehearsal schedule." Captain Crawford further explained that in 

1968 and 1969 the detachment traveled to Cuba for winter training and that it 

later experimented with such training in Orlando, Florida (1970), and Parris 

Island, South Carolina (1971). Since 1972, however, the unit has been 

conducting off-season training in Yuma, Arizona. The site in the southwest 

provides the detachment with the suitable space and climate conditions 

necessary to develop, practice, and refine the intricate series of drill and 

musical routines it will use throughout the coming year. Equally important, the 

unit's isolation permits them to focus their attention on practice sessions that 

frequently include twelve-hour work days. 

The Battle Color Detachment's training trip to Arizona is traditionally 

followed by a one-week performance tour of major Marine Corps commands. 



135 

Interview with Truman W. Crawford, Captain, USMC, Washington, 



D.C., 21 December 1981. 



120 



The first west coast tour was conducted in 1972, and until 1978 the detachment 
would alternate the performance tour between east and west coast commands. 
In 1978, however, the Arizona training trip was followed by a west coast tour, 
and then at the conclusion of the official parade season in September the 
detachment visited the east coast bases. Both tours are designed to acquaint 
the respective commands with the heritage that is theirs as represented in the 
Battle Color Ceremony. The west coast tour following the initial training trip, 
however, is of particular significance to the detachment. The performance tour 
provides the Marine Drum and Bugle Corps and Silent Drill Team with valuable 
crowd exposure. Furthermore, the tour allows the units time to evaluate their 
drill and make refinements to selected maneuvers as required. At the 
conclusion of the tour, usually about mid-March, the detachment returns to the 
Barracks and is incorporated into the ceremonial training schedule in progress 
at Eighth and Eye. On occasion the tour may extend beyond the normal 
one- week performance schedule; in 1981, for instance, the Marine Drum and 
Bugle Corps, as an adjunct to the west coast tour, traveled to Australia to 
participate in the Melbourne Military Tattoo. 

The pace of the progressively intensifying ceremonial training sched- 
ule accelerates in mid- March of each year. With the Battle Color Detachment 
back home at the Barracks, the marching units begin company level drill and 
the parade staffs conduct daily workouts. Selected parade positions, such as 
the mascot handler, time orderly, and National Color detail also initiate their 
respective training programs in preparation for later competitive tryouts. 
Captain J. M. Paxton, Jr., the Company B Commanding Officer in 1981, 
described the March training cycle as "the commencement of the integration of 



121 



136 
individual and unit drill into battalion level drill." 

This cycle begins with the initiation of Officer Workouts and Key 
Personnel Workouts. Annually a Barracks bulletin will prescribe the training 
schedule and sequence of events for each rehearsal. The officer workouts focus 
on those sequences which involve only the officers — officers call, dress right, 
officers center, and officers dismissed. The key personnel workouts include 
those selected events that involve the officers as well as the staff noncommis- 
sioned officers. The most significant rehearsal, however, normally occurs in 
the last week of the month, when the Barracks conducts its first Battalion Drill. 
Battalion Drill marks the first occasion that the respective ceremonial units 
begin combined practices. Master Gunnery Sergeant David L. Ankrom, the 1978 

to 1981 operations chief, explained that "the Battalion Drills truly signify the 

1 37 
nearness of the rapidly approaching parade season." 

Officer and key personnel workouts and battalion drills continue into 
April; however, a significant addition accompanies the April ceremonial 
training schedule- -Phase I and Phase II rehearsals. The Phase I and Phase II 
rehearsals are conducted first during the day and then later at night. The 
evening training acquaints the ceremonial units with the unique differences and 
problems associated with performing under bright spotlights, and it provides the 
lighting technicians with valuable training experience. Also in April the special 
details for the band concert chair removal team, time orderly, sound techni- 
cians, mascot handler, flag-lowering detail, and lighting unit continue their 
respective practices on an individual and small unit basis. 



136 

Interview with 3. M. Paxton, Jr., Captain, USMC, Washington, 

D.C., 18 August 1981. 

137 

Interview with David L. Ankrom, Master Gunnery Ser- 
geant, USMC, Washington, D.C., 15 September 1981. 



122 



The sophistication of the Phase II rehearsals is evident in the fact that 
on selected occasions the rehearsals may actually become ceremonies. At 
times, with a minor modification of the honors sequence, the rehearsal may 
become a retirement, an award, or a dedication ceremony. 

The ceremonial units realize, however, that the parade season is 
imminent when the Barracks' Marines conduct the first evening Full-Dress 
Phase II rehearsal, traditionally in the first week in May. Later that week, five 
months of extensive planning and intensive training culminate in the first 
performance of the annual parade season — the Commanding Officer of the 
Barracks' Dependents Parade. The parade's reviewing official is the Command- 
ing Officer of the Barracks, and the honored guests are the families and friends 
of the Marines stationed at the Barracks. The ceremony signals the official 
beginning of yet another parade season at the Barracks. 

The daily practice routine that will eventually evolve as the weekly 
training schedule throughout the summer has yet to be firmly established, 
however. In many respects the schedule is never definite because many 
requests for ceremonies at the White House or Pentagon, as well as funeral 
requests for the local area, are often received with relatively brief notice — 
twenty-four to seventy-two hours' advance notification. Consequently, the 
training schedule must of necessity be flexible. Furthermore, in conjunction 
with the training program, the Barracks' ceremonial units are performing more 
than one hundred actual ceremonies per month. The requirement to maintain 
training schedule flexibility, however, is probably at no time greater than in the 
demanding month of May. 

The Tuesday Sunset Parades at the Marine Corps War Memorial near 
Arlington National Cemetery start in June and begin receiving the attention of 



123 



the Barracks' ceremonial units the Monday after the first Friday Evening 
Parade. Master Gunnery Sergeant Ankrom, who attends all Barracks-level 

rehearsals, stated that "May is probably the most demanding and challenging 

1 38 
training period at the Barracks." He explained that this is so because 

attention must be divided between initiating the Evening Parade at the 
Barracks and preparing for and rehearsing the Sunset Parade at the Iwo Jima 
monument. In addition, the Barracks is performing actual ceremonial commit- 
ments on a daily basis. Seven days a week, the Eighth and Eye units are either 
rehearsing or conducting a ceremony- -and are often accomplishing both daily. 

Although the Evening Parades and Sunset Parades are similar in some 
respects, there are sequence and format differences that necessitate distinct 
practice sessions for each ceremony. All the practice that has been accomp- 
lished in preparing for the Evening Parade, however, is of significant support in 
readying the units for the Sunset Parade. Nonetheless, separate key personnel 
workouts, battalion drills, and Phase I and Phase II rehearsals are conducted 
almost daily in May at the ceremony site at the Iwo Jima monument. The 
challenge of preparing and performing either of the two parades is exacting, but 
the demand is compounded by the task of performing both on a weekly basis. 

After the first Sunset Parade in June, the ceremonial training schedule 
at the Barracks becomes relatively routine. Although the practice schedule is 
frequently interrupted by requests to perform numerous priority ceremonies at 
the White House, Pentagon, Washington Navy Yard, Arlington National Ceme- 
tery, and other performance sites throughout the United States, the schedule 
achieves a predictable routine in June. Yet short-notice requests for retire- 
ments, funerals, and other special ceremonies continue to dictate schedule 



138-.. 

Ibid. 



124 



flexibility. Nonetheless, the weekly training program from June to mid-Sep- 
tember becomes fairly stable. 

Throughout the summer months the daily schedule is fairly standard 
for the ceremonial units. On Monday mornings the ceremonial units conduct 
platoon- and company -level practice sessions. The parading units travel to the 
Marine Corps War Memorial to conduct Phase I and II Sunset Parades on 
Tuesday mornings — and return that evening for the actual parade performance. 
On Wednesday mornings the companies again perform small unit drill rehears- 
als. On Thursday mornings the ceremonial units participate in individual and 
unit training designed to correct any problems they may be experiencing. The 
Phase I and II rehearsals for the Evening Parade are conducted at the Post each 
Friday morning- -and that evening the actual ceremony is performed. 

Throughout the week the ceremonial units will frequently rehearse in 
the mornings, travel to a performance site in the afternoon for an afternoon or 
evening ceremony, either locally or afar, return to the Barracks in the late 
evening, and then report to the parade deck for rehearsals the next morning. 
The arduous schedule becomes the accepted routine throughout the summer. 

The extremely compact work week does not conclude with the Friday 
Evening Parade, however. The ceremonial units perform in local street 
parades, musical concerts, dedication ceremonies, or an infinite variety of 
other commitments on approximately 50 percent of the weekends. The 
Barracks Marines also perform about five nights per week on average. Except- 
ing the two night parades, the evening performance commitments may vary 
from a four-man Color Guard to a one-hundred-man Battle Color Ceremony. 
The Evening and Sunset Parades may thus dominate the activity at the 
Barracks, yet many more ceremonies combine to create a challenging task for 



125 



the Barracks' Marines. 

In mid-September the final Evening Parade of the season is conducted 
at the Post. The season's concluding ceremony is traditionally performed by the 
staff noncommissioned officers of the Barracks in honor of the Sergeant Major 
of the Marine Corps. As "Taps" echoes across the parade deck, marking the 
ending of a parade season that unofficially began in January, the parade season 
at the Barracks is all too soon concluded. Yet ceremonial commitments and 
training requirements continue at an electrifying pace. 

From mid-September through October of each year a number of 
significant ceremonial and training programs are executed. The Battle Color 
Detachment conducts a one-week tour of the major east coast Marine bases and 
then travels to Dallas for a traditional two- to three-week schedule of three 
performances per day at the Texas State Fair. Two non-ceremonial training 
and performance commitments of the Barracks also receive priority in October. 
One is the classified training requirement in support of the contingency mission 
supporting the White House and Camp David. The second is the extensive 
planning and preparation for the conduct of the annual Marine Corps Marathon 
in the nation's capital on the first Sunday in November. Traditionally referred 
to as the historic "run around the monuments," the Marine Corps Marathon has 
established itself as one of the premier marathons in the country. The sixth 
annual marathon on 1 November 1981 attracted 9,753 runners and ranked as one 
of the most prestigious races in the nation. Initially the race was sponsored by 
the Reserve Division at Headquarters Marine Corps. The success of the race, 
however, required the marathon mission responsibilities to be transferred to the 
Barracks in 1978 because the Reserve Division lacked the necessary manpower 
and assets to execute the mission. In that year Captain James D. Burke served 



126 



as the Race Coordinator for the Barracks and was responsible for the national 
prominence the race eventually gained. The significant increase in manpower 
requirements that this transfer imposed upon the Barracks, however, eventually 
resulted in the Marine Marathon responsibilities being transferred in 1982 to a 
major Marine command — the Marine Corps Development and Education 
Command at Quantico, Virginia. The marathon also caused the elimination of a 
series of traditional ceremonies the Eighth and Eye Marines had been 
conducting for many years. 

The cancelled ceremony was the Flag Pageant. Rehearsals for the 
ceremony had begun in mid-October each year, with the performances being 
conducted from mid- November to mid-December and then again after the 
holidays from mid-January to mid-February. The Flag Pageants were per- 
formed at local area schools as a community relations effort by the Barracks 
Marines to acquaint young people with the history of the American Flag. The 
time-consuming rehearsal and performance schedule, often dictating two 
ceremonies per day, eventually overtaxed the manpower assets of the Barracks, 
especially considering the increasingly higher priority security and marathon 
missions. Consequently, the Flag Pageants were cancelled in 1981, but may be 
reinstituted in future years. 

The November training and ceremonial schedule, however, remained 
exceptionally full. The November routine is highlighted by those ceremonies 
which support the traditional 10 November Marine Corps Birthday festivities. 
As one of the most considerable ceremonial and social occasions in the Marine 
Corps, the event receives considerable attention in November. The Barracks' 
ceremonial units perform the traditional ceremony at the Marine Corps War 
Memorial at 1100 on 10 November. Then later that evening they provide 



127 



ceremonial support for the Headquarters Marine Corps Ball. Units from the 
Barracks also contribute assistance to other local celebrations and since 1977 
have participated in delayed birthday pageantries in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. 

Although ceremonial commitments continue in December, the cere- 
monial units at Eighth and Eye normally take holiday leaves on a port and 
starboard basis. The units also engage in the necessary reorganization for the 
next year's parade season. The current Barracks Adjutant, Captain Richard D. 
Hamilton, estimated that "historically, excepting the Marine Band, 30 percent 

of the ceremonial Marines are transferred each year to new assignments or 

139 
released from active duty." 

The personnel assignment policies of the Marine Corps are based 
primarily on the needs of the Marine Corps as well as the qualifications and 
preferences of the individual Marine. Assignment to the Barracks, however, is 
governed by a unique policy. Virtually every Marine transferred to the "Oldest 
Post of the Corps" is selected for such duty by an extensive selection process. 
Marine officers from the Barracks conduct recruiting trips to the recruit depots 
to interview and screen enlisted Marines for assignment to the garrison. 
Furthermore, most every staff noncommissioned officer and officer are brought 
to the Barracks for personal interviews prior to a final determination con- 
cerning their receipt of permanent orders to the Post. 

Once assigned to the Barracks the normal tour length is similar to that 
of other posts and stations throughout the Marine Corps- -about three years. 
Thus the frequent reassignment of Marines and the relatively brief tour length 
poses a problem of continuity for the Barracks parades. The solution, however, 



139 

Interview with Richard D. Hamilton, Captain, USMC, Washington, 



D.C., 15 September 1981. 



128 



is an extensive and continuous ceremonial training program. 

The current ceremonial training program is one that has evolved from 
almost one-half century of performing Sunset and Evening Parades. Colonel 
Marousek, who refined the training schedule with the inception of the first 
Evening Parade in 1957, explained that the current routine "differs only in 

degree and effort because the goal then as now was and is perfection — and it is 

140 
achieved only through hard work." 

The success of today is achieved by the challenging training program 

engaged in by every participating Marine. It is the dedication of Barracks 

Marines to the demands of ceremonial perfection through infinite practices and 

rehearsals that has caused the Evening Parade to become what it is today — the 

Marine Corps' most respected and famous ceremony. 



140 

Interview with Marousek. 



CONCLUSION 

The Evening Parade has become a symbol of the professionalism, 
discipline, and esprit de corps of the United States Marines. If one objective of 
the ceremony is to enhance the respect for, and confidence in, the abilities of 
the Marine Corps, the ultimate purpose is to express the pride that is essential 
to the character of the nation itself. 

The Evening Parade is a reflection on our past as well as a prophecy of 
our future. A visit to the Eighth and Eye Barracks is a pilgrimage back through 
time, an embrace with the past. Parades signify the earliest rituals of war and 
the hunt. The chaos that characterized early conflict created in ancient 
warriors the idea of moving their formations in a uniform manner. Further- 
more, as tactics, technology, and weaponry advanced, so too did the need for 
efficient battlefield mobility and maneuver. 

But these transitions in the means of warfare were secondary to the 
emerging philosophical concepts. As the age of the individuality of the knight 
disappeared, the age of the prominence of the army and the nation as a whole 
evolved. The effectiveness of a military organization then became greater than 
the sum of its individual members. The confusion of indiscriminate, individual 
actions was replaced by precise, methodological actions — warriors became a 
useful part of a purpose larger than the individual soldier. 

The Evening Parade commemorates the transitions in military thought 
throughout the ages — particularly that concept of the belief in an ideal more 
important than any single individual, that philosophy of duty, honor, and 
country. Men in uniform represent the nation they serve and they symbolize 



129 



130 



the ideals of its citizenry. The Evening Parade's concluding bugle call from 
high atop the Barracks ramparts sounds a message that hopefully lingers long 
after the final notes have faded. The solemn rendition of "Taps" evokes many 
meanings for many individuals; however, its one hauntingly clear meaning is 
that it reminds each guest of the heritage of our nation and the strength of its 
people. 

The Evening Parade is a relatively recent innovation at Marine 
Barracks, Washington, D.C. The history of the ceremony in many respects, 
however, dates back to the founding of our nation. Thus the parade parallels 
the growth of the country and the Corps it represents. Throughout the early 
years of the nineteenth century the Barracks performed numerous missions on 
behalf of the United States and the Marine Corps. Yet parades and ceremonies 
were from the beginning an integral aspect of duty at the Washington garrison. 

President Thomas Jefferson assisted in selecting the site for the 
Barracks in the nation's capital in March 1801. On 4 July of that year the 
Barracks Marines conducted a military parade on the White House lawn that 
marked the first time in the history of the nation that a detachment of regular 
troops was reviewed by the President at his residence in the city of Washington. 
General John A. Lejeune recalled in his memoirs that in those early years the 
Marines were the only military units in the nation's capital and thus constituted 
the primary ceremonial and security forces for the region. Consequently, the 
Barracks detachments performed a variety of ceremonial duties in the nation's 
capital. 

In preparing for the numerous ceremonial tasks assigned to the 
Barracks, the garrison initiated the traditional military reveille and morning 
muster parades. These parades eventually evolved into more regulated guard 



131 



mount ceremonies, and later into more formalized military reviews. As early 
as 1808 Commandant Franklin Wharton established one of the first formal 
ceremonial and drill programs for the Barracks Marines. Throughout the 1800s 
the Washington Barracks served as Headquarters Marine Corps, as the site for 
officer and enlisted training, and as a source for Marine expeditionary forces. 
Thus parades and ceremonies at the Barracks received varying emphasis over 
the years because of the many commitments assigned to the Barracks. With the 
relocation of Marine Headquarters and the establishment of bases for training 
and operational units in the early 1900s, the Barracks eventually began to focus 
its attention toward ceremonial duties. 

Then in the summer of 1934 the Barracks initiated its first full season 
of regularly scheduled weekly parades. The parades were commonly referred to 
as "Sunset Parades" because they were structured around the lowering of colors 
at sunset. According to General Lemuel C. Shepherd, 3r., the parades had two 
basic purposes: first, to improve the marching proficiency of the units and, 
second, to provide for the entertainment of guests to the Barracks. Throughout 
the next two decades the Marines experimented with the ceremony and 
introduced new ideas into the parade format. Thus the parades that were 
initiated in 1934 were eventually to become a showcase for the ceremonial 
abilities of the Marine Corps. 

It was the advent of the Evening Parade in 1957 that finally conferred 
on the Barracks the official task of performing ceremonies as its primary 
mission. In time the ceremonies by the Barracks came to represent the Marine 
Corps to millions of spectators each year. The Barracks ceremonies are 
designed to enhance the respect for, and confidence in, the abilities of the 
Marine Corps as well as the country it represents. General Leonard F. 



132 



Chapman, Jr., and later Barracks Commanding Officers, agree that the basic 
purpose of the parade is to promote a sense of pride in Corps and country. 

National character and will are difficult terms to express meaningfully 
and succinctly, yet they are fundamental and essential aspects of a democracy. 
The character of our nation is dependent upon our perceptions of ourselves as a 
people and as a nation. Although there may be many intangible aspects of 
national will, the military power of a country is completely tangible. As an 
element of national strength, however, the military is unable to stand alone. It 
is dependent upon the will of the people to provide it sustenance and direction. 
Intangible though they may be, the patriotism and emotions of a people 
constitute one crucial aspect of national fortitude- -one that is often decisive in 
promoting and sustaining national will. For a nation's strength is ultimately 
expressed in the will and character of its people. 

Thus the Evening Parade at Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., is 
performed as a tribute to the past will of our nation as well as the future 
resolve of its people. If it signifies the past success of our national will, so too 
does it reveal the continuing need to have national fortitude as the basis of our 
national strength. The Evening Parade is presented as a contribution to the 
enhancement of the patriotic spirit of our nation. Its strength and meaning, 
however, are dependent upon that which one grants it — just as a nation's 
military power is contingent upon the will of the people. 

The Evening Parade is an emotional experience that challenges the 
printed word to capture its true spirit. Once seen, however, it becomes a part 
of each guest and each guest becomes a part of it. A nation's military depends 
upon the strength, support, and faith of its citizenry. Likewise, a country's 
people must believe in its military—those pledged to preserve that for which 



133 



the nation itself stands. A nation's military and citizenry constitute a oneness 
that must be inseparable. The Evening Parade signifies this country's unity of 
purpose and its belief in the future. 

If there is any one definable significance of the Evening Parade, it 
may be that it simply preserves and perpetuates the pride of the nation it 
represents and reaffirms its continuing commitment to the freedom of its 
people. In essence, the ceremony depicts our nation's heritage and its future. 

To simply describe the ceremony at the Barracks is in itself most 
challenging. In many respects the meaning of the Evening Parade is influenced 
by the imagination and patriotic spirit of the viewer. Thus, in the final 
analysis, as in the concluding bugle call, the parade's significance and its 
interpretation are dependent upon the respective guests- -they alone provide 
the true meaning and purpose of the parade. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Books 

Boatner, Mark M. HI. Military Customs and Traditions . New York: David 
McKay Company, 1956. 

Ceremonies Manual . Washington, D.C.: Marine Barracks Order P5060.39D, 1 
May 1979. 

Edwards, Thomas Joseph. Military Customs . Aldershot, England: Gale and 
Polden, 1954. 

Heinl, Robert Debs, Jr. Soldiers of the Sea . Annapolis: United States Naval 
Institute, 1962. 

Lejeune, John A. The Reminiscences of a Marine . Philadelphia: Dorrance and 
Company, 1930. 

Lovette, Leland P. Naval Customs: Traditions and Usage . Annapolis: United 
States Naval Institute, 1939. 

Mahan, Alfred Thayer. The Influences of Seapower upon History, 1660-1783 . 
Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1943. 

Schuon, Karl. Home of the Commandants . Quantico, Virginia: Leatherneck 
Association, 1974. 

Articles 

Barnum, Edward. "Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C." Leatherneck , April 
1954, pp. 14-19, 73. 

Brown, Julius V. "Oldest Post." Leatherneck , July 1969, pp. 22-27. 

Fitzgerald, Julia. "The Mascots." Leatherneck , October 1981, p. 31. 

"Hideaway Summit." Newsweek , 18 September 1978, pp. 22-26. 

Richardson, Herb. "Field Music." Leatherneck , September 1981, pp. 16-21. 

Smith, William R. "Marine Barracks: Essence of the 'Old Corps." Marine Corps 
Gazette , November 1980, pp. 90-95. 

Suhosky, Robert R. "Eighth and Eye." Leatherneck , November 1955, 
pp. 16-23. 

"Washington: The Monks at Eighth and I." Time , 9 August 1971, p. 23. 

134 



135 



Interviews 

Allen, Diane. Guest at Evening Parade, Washington, D.C. Interview, 21 August 
1981. 

Ankrom, David L., Master Gunnery Sergeant, USMC. Washington, D.C., 
Interview, 15 September 1981. 

Barton, Lloyd H. Guest at Evening Parade. Washington, D.C. Interview, 21 
August 1981. 

Biddle, Robert M., Captain, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, k October 
1978. 

Buse, Henry W., Major, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, k December 1976. 

Chapman, Leonard F., Jr., General, USMC (Ret.). Washington, D.C. Interview, 
14 May 1978. 

Cooper, Charles G., Major General, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 9 
August 1977. 

Cox, Dan, Sergeant Major, Canadian Forces (Ret.). Kingston, Ontario, 
Canada. Interview, 26 August 1979. 

Crawford, Truman W., Captain, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 21 
December 1981. 

Fegan, Joseph C, Jr., Lieutenant General, USMC. Quantico, Virginia. Inter- 
view, 18 September 1977. 

Hamilton, Richard D., Captain, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 15 
September 1981. 

Kline, Jack T., Lieutenant Colonel, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 12 
April 1979. 

Long, L. R., Gunnery Sergeant, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 21 May 
1977. 

McConnell, Fred, Major, Canadian Forces (Ret.). Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 
Interview, 26 August 1979. 

Marousek, L. A., Colonel, USMC (Ret.). Washington, D.C. Interview, 12 August 
1978. 

Metzger, Peter T., Captain, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 12 September 
1977. 

Monahan, John P., Colonel, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 10 June 1979. 



136 



Murray, Terrence P., Major, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interviews, 21 August 
1981 and 30 December 1981. 

Paxton, J. M., Jr., Captain, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 21 August 
1981. 

Piatt, Jonas M., Major General, USMC (Ret.). Washington, D.C. Interview, 2k 
July 1977. 

Rice, Wesley H., Colonel, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 12 April 1977. 

Shepherd, Lemuel C, Jr., General, USMC (Ret.). Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 
Interview, 25 August 1979. 

Steele, O. K., Colonel, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 5 May 1981. 

Titus, David G., Captain, USMC. Washington, D.C. Interview, 10 December 
1979. 



Letters 

Berkeley, James P. Letter to John H. Admire, 4 April 1978. Operations Office 
Archives, Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. 

Carter, Jimmy. Letter to Louis H. Wilson, 5 August 1978. Marine Corps 
History and Museums Division, Washington, D.C. 

Pate, Randolph McC. Letter to Leonard F. Chapman, Jr., 14 May 1957. 
Operations Office Archives, Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. 

Reagan, Ronald W. Letter to Robert H. Barrow, 23 June 1981. Marine Corps 
History and Museums Division, Washington, D.C. 

Shoup, David M. Letter to John F. Kennedy, 18 June 1962. Marine Barracks 
Archives, Washington, D.C. 

Thacker, Joel D. Letter to David Zeitlin, k October 1950. Marine Corps 
History and Museums Division, Washington, D.C. 



Miscellany 

Dean, Ruth. "Moonlight Parades Are an Innovation." Washington Star , 8 July 
1957, sec. D, p. 5. 

Kennedy, John F. Transcript of remarks by President Kennedy at the Evening 
Parade, 12 July 1962. Marine Barracks Archives, Washington, D.C. 

Peterson, Harold L. "The Army in the West." Series of Record Albums titled 
"Military Music in America." Vol. 3. Washington, D.C: Company of 
Military Historians, n.d. 



137 



"Philip Inspects Marines, Given 21 -Gun Salute." Washington Star , 20 October 
1957. 

Washington National Intelligencer , 4 July 1817. 

Parade Programs 

"The Sunset Parade." Marine Barracks Parade Program, 4 May 1956. 
"The Sunset Parade." Marine Barracks Parade Program, September 1957. 
"The Evening Parade." Marine Barracks Parade Program, 28 September 1965. 
"The Evening Parade." Marine Barracks Parade Program, 31 May 1968. 
"The Evening Parade." Marine Barracks Parade Program, 18 May 1979. 
"The Evening Parade." Marine Barracks Parade Program, 4 September 1981. 

Orders, Manuals, and Other Records 

"Drill and Ceremonies." Operations Office Archives, Marine Barracks, Wash- 
ington, D.C., n.d., unpaged. 

Guest Book. Marine Barracks Archives, Washington, D.C., 4 August and 7 
September 1978, unpaged. 

Hewitt, Linda L. Women Marines in World War I . History and Museums 
Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C., 1974. 

"Hosting." Washington, D.C.: Marine Barracks Order P5060.43A, 18 April 1977. 

Meid, Pat. Marine Corps Women's Reserve in World War II . History and 
Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, 
D.C., 1964. 

Prince Constantine Ceremony Album. Marine Barracks Archives, Washington, 
D.C., 20 November 1958, unpaged. 

Shaw, Henry I., Jr. and Donnelly, Ralph W. Blacks in the Marine Corps . 
History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 
Washington, D.C., 1975. 

"The Negro in the Marine Corps." Equal Opportunities Branch, Fact Sheet, 
Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C., 1971, p. 13. 

"The United States Marine Band." Information brochure. Washington, D.C.: 
NAVMC 5914, MCNPB 40596, 4 July 1954, unpaged. 



138 



Introductory Announcements 



Introductory Announcement for Marine Band Concert. "The Evening Parade," 
21 August 1981. 

Introductory Announcement for Marine Corps Battle Color. "The Evening 
Parade," 21 August 1981. 



' 



VG 33 .A42 1982 
Admire, John H. 
The evening parade 



DEC 4 2007 



MAR 1 8 2011 
OCT 9 

OCT g 20 




Keep this card in the book pocket 
This book is due on the latest date stamped 

psdlilEJS 3}Ep JS3}E| 31J} UO anp SI 5)00q SIU.J. 



Library of the Marine Corps 

2040 Broadway Street 
Quantico, VA 22134-5107